Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.
Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.
First domesticated wheats in the Fertile Crescent.
Domestication of goats.
Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
Medes migrate into Iran from Asia.
Persians migrate into Iran from Asia.
Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
722 BCE - 705 BCE
Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
From Swords, Loaves and Fishes: A History of Dunbar by Roy Pugh
Dunbar is known to have been occupied from at least AD75, although archaeological evidence has confirmed human habitation since BC8000. What is now known as Scotland did not in fact emerge until the 9th century before that, the country was populated by four distinct and disparate racial and cultural groups – Britons, Picts, Scots and Angles.
Dunbar was probably founded in the 1st century by the Britons (the Votadini tribe) who were expelled by the Northumbrian Angles in the 7th century, when Dunbar is first recorded as an urbs regis or royal town. A fortified wooden enclosure existed in 856 on or near the present day site of the stone-built castle which was created in the mid-13th century.
Dunbar first began to prosper in the late 14th century, when in 1370, it was elevated from a burgh of barony – the fiefdom of the local landowning family who built its first stone castle – to a King’s or Royal Burgh, after which it enjoyed considerable advantages in trade over other, larger towns in the county. With its 'free’ harbour at Belhaven, Dunbar was soon trading with other Scottish communities and with Europe and ultimately, the Americas. The monopolies and privileges it enjoyed as a Royal Burgh would continue unabated until the great reform legislation of 1832-33 curtailed its powers. During its long history, the town was prominent in the history of Scotland, chiefly between the 13th and 19th centuries, some six hundred years which covered the bitter Wars of Independence, then union with England and finally as a military base which would continue until after the two World Wars. During the Wars of Independence, its strong castle was crucial to the defence of south-east Scotland, second only to Roxburgh Castle in the Borders. Swords, Loaves and Fishes is a detailed account of the town’s history and its development from the 1st century AD and the part it played in Scotland’s long and troubled history, on occasions a part which was out of proportion to its size.
Near East Timeline - History
CAMPAIGN SUMMARIES OF WORLD WAR 2
Each Summary is complete in its own right. The same information may therefore be found in a number of related summaries
(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)
1919 - Treaty of Versailles - Japan was granted a mandate over the ex-German islands in the Pacific. The League of Nations was formed.
1921-22 - Washington Naval Treaty - Britain, United States, Japan, France and Italy agreed to limit the displacement and main armament of capital ships, aircraft carriers and cruisers, and total tonnage and age of the first two categories.
1922 - Japanese carrier "Hosho" completed.
1927 - Geneva Naval Conference failed to reach agreement on total tonnage of cruisers, destroyers and submarines. Major warships completed included Japanese carrier "Akagi".
1928 - Japanese carrier "Kaga" completed
1930 - London Naval Treaty - Britain, US and Japan agreed on total tonnage, tonnage and armament limitations for cruisers, destroyers and submarines. Also that no new capital ships were to be laid down until 1937.
1931 - An incident in the Chinese province of Manchuria led to the Japanese invasion which was completed by early 1932. The puppet state of Manchukuo was declared. By then Japanese forces had taken control of the Shanghai area in further fighting.
1933 - Japanese walked out of the League of Nations over the Manchurian issue. Major warships completed included Japanese carrier "Ryujo".
1934 - The 1932 Geneva Disarmament Conference finally broke down and Japan announced its intention to withdraw from the 1922 and 1930 Naval Treaties when they expired in 1936. Planning started on the giant battleships of the "Yamato" class.
1935 - April - The United States passed the Neutrality Act forbidding the supply of arms to belligerents in the event of war.
1936 - November - London Protocol -The major powers including Germany agreed to prohibit unrestricted submarine warfare against unarmed ships. December -The 1922 and 1930 Naval Treaties were allowed to lapse and the major powers moved towards rearmament.
1937 - July - Further incidents in China this time near Peking, led to Japan extending its hold over northeastern China. Major warships completed included Japanese carrier "Soryu".
1938 - By the end of 1938, Japan had completed its hold over northeastern China and the major port areas.
1939 - September 1st - Germany invaded Poland 3rd - Britain and France declared war on Germany. Major warships completed to 3rd September 1939 included Japanese carrier "Hiryu". Launched in the same period - Japanese carrier "Shokaku"
Steps to War with Japan - Japan established a Chinese puppet-government in Nanking.
June/July - With its possession of the Chinese ports, Japan wanted to close the remaining entry points into China. Pressure was put on France to stop the flow of supplies through Indochina, and on Britain to do the same with the Burma Road. Both complied, but Britain did so only until October 1940, when the road was reopened.
Axis Powers - Germany, Italy and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact in Berlin on the 27th. They agreed to jointly oppose any country joining the Allies at war - by which they meant the United States.
Vichy France finally agreed to the stationing of Japanese troops in northern Indochina.
Fleet Air Arm Attack on Taranto - O n the 11th in the Mediterranean, British carrier "Illustrious" launched a Swordfish torpedo biplane attack on the main Italian naval base. Of the six battleships present, the 20 aircraft hit "CONTE DI CAVOUR" and "CAIO DIULIO" with one torpedo each and the brand new "LITTORIA" with three. All three sank at their moorings and "Cavour" was never recommissioned, all for the loss of just two Swordfish. The Japanese Navy studied the attack carefully as Pearl Harbor learnt to its cost just a year later.
Five Year Neutrality Pact between Japan and Russia benefited both powers. Russia could free troops for Europe and Japan concentrate on her expansion southwards.
The demand for bases in southern Indochina was now conceded by Vichy France. Britain, Holland and the United States protested and froze Japanese assets, but the troops went in. The Dutch East lndies cancelled oil delivery arrangements and the Americans shortly imposed their own oil embargo. Japan had lost most of its sources of oil.
Japan and the US continued to negotiate over their differences, but as its oil stocks rapidly declined Japan accelerated preparations for war.
War Minister Gen Tojo became Japanese Prime Minister.
3rd - The recently completed British fleet carrier "Indomitable" ran aground and was damaged off Kingston, Jamaica. She was due to accompany capital ships "Prince of Wales" and "Repulse" to the Far East as a deterrent to Japanese aggression. Her absence in December may have proved fatal to the two big ships.
Final Steps to War with Japan - As talks dragged on and the United States demanded the departure of Japan from China as well as French Indochina, the Pearl Harbor Strike Force sailed into the North Pacific. Vice-Adm Nagumo commanded the fleet carriers "Akagi", "Hiryu", "Kaga", "Soryu", "Shokaku" and "Zuikaku", plus two battleships, cruisers and destroyers. Britain's limited naval deterrent to Japanese expansion, capital ships "Prince of Wales" and "Repulse" met at Colombo, Ceylon on the 28th, en route to Singapore. Without the fleet carrier "Indomitable" they had no ship-borne aircraft support.
Starting Conditions - Strategic and Naval Background
Britain and Dominions - Responsible for defending India, Ceylon, Burma, Malaya, northern Borneo, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, the Papua New Guinea/Bismarck Archipelago/Solomon Islands chain, and numerous island groups throughout the Indian Ocean and Central and South Pacific. Few forces could be spared from existing war zones to protect this vast spread of territory and its supply routes. Britain's main base was at Singapore with its two recently arrived big ships. Three old cruisers and some destroyers were in Malayan waters, and a few old destroyers at Hong Kong. By now the surviving seven cruisers and smaller ships of the Royal Australian and New Zealand Navies were back in the region.
United States - Apart from the defence of its Western seaboard, Panama Canal Zone, Alaska and the Aleutians, Hawaiian Islands and various islands in the Central Pacific, the US had responsibility for the Philippines. In the event of attack, the defenders were expected to hold out until relieved by the US Pacific Fleet fighting its way from the main base at Pearl Harbor, a distance of 4,500 miles. In the Philippines was the Asiatic Fleet with three cruisers, 13 destroyers and 29 submarines. The Pacific Fleet itself consisted of eight battleships, three fleet carriers, 21 cruisers, 67 destroyers and 27 submarines.
Dutch - Naval forces allocated to the defence of the many islands of the Dutch East lndies included three cruisers, seven destroyers and fifteen submarines.
Already established in Korea, Manchuria, northeast China, its main ports and Hainan, Formosa, and the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Island groups, Japan now had the whole of French Indochina. Japan's main aim was still the conquest of China, for which the oilfields of the Dutch East lndies (DEI) were indispensable. Also important was the closing of the Burma Road over which Allied supplies continue to roll. Both moves meant war with Britain and the US, and a vital part of the Japanese strategy was the establishment of a huge defence perimeter stretching from Burma right around to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Only in this way could it hope to hold off the United States once its manpower and industrial resources were mobilised.
Japan went to war with both the strategic and military advantages:
Japan was well placed to occupy the territory needed for the defence perimeter:
In the West - much of China was occupied and the Neutrality Pact with Russia, coupled with the German invasion meant Japan had little to fear for now from this direction. Hong Kong could be taken easily from adjacent occupied China.
To the East were th e vast distances of the Pacific. By taking the US islands of Guam and Wake, and some of the British Gilbert Islands, the Japanese mandated islands (Marshalls, Caroline's, Marianas) were further protected. America was also kept at bay.
To the Southwest - Thailand and Malaya would soon fall to the invading forces from Hainan and Indochina. Thereafter the capture of Burma could proceed smoothly. The Burma Road would be cut, India threatened, and that perimeter was secured.
In the South - lay the oilfields of the Dutch East Indies and the protection offered by the island chain of Sumatra, Java and Bali through to Timor. The main island of Java was the target o f two massive pincer movements:
Southeast - landings in north New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and northern Solomons would protect the Japanese Carolines. From there, forces could strike Australia and its supply routes.
Westwards - From Indochina to northern Borneo, and later direct to Sumatra and Java.
Eastwards - Fro m bases in Formosa and the Carolines to the Philippines. From there to southern Borneo, Celebes and Moluccas, and on to Timor and Bali. Then to eastern Java.
Major Warship types
US ASIATIC FLEET
US PACIFIC FLEET
Declarations and Outbreak of War - Because of the International Dateline, events that took place on the 7th in Hawaii as far as Washington and London were concerned, were already into the 8th in Hong Kong and Malaya. By the 8th: (1) Japan had declared war on Britain and the US (2) Britain, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Holland, the United States and a number of Central American and Caribbean states had declared against Japan (3) China declared war against the Axis powers.
Using the compass directions outlining the Japanese strategy above , attacks in December 1941 proceeded as follows:
West - Hong Kong - The territory was invaded from mainland China on the 8th December, and within five days the defenders had withdrawn to Hong Kong Island. Fighting carried on until Christmas Day when the British and Dominion troops surrendered.
South West - Thailand, Malaya, Burma - Japanese forces landed on the Kra Isthmus of Thailand and northeast Malaya on the 8th. From there they drove down the west coast of Malaya towards Singapore, outflanking the defences by land and sea. Follow-up landings took place later in the month and in January 1942. By the 13th December they had crossed from Thailand into the southern tip of Burma, but stayed there for the time being. 10th - Loss of “Repulse” and “Prince of Wales”: the Sinking of Force Z (map below) - B y the 8th, the battlecruiser and battleship had assembled at Singapore as Force Z under the command of Adm Sir Tom Phillips. That evening they sailed with four destroyers to attack the Japanese landing on the northeast Malay coast. Fighter cover was requested but not readily available. In the evening of the 9th, Force Z was well up into the South China Sea. Japanese aircraft were spotted and Adm Phillips decided to return. Around midnight he received a false report of landings at Kuantan, further down the Malay Peninsular and set course for there. The ships had by now been reported by a submarine, and a naval aircraft strike force was despatched from Indochina. Attacks started around 11.00 on the 10th December, and in less than three hours “PRINCE OF WALES” and “REPULSE” had been hit by a number of torpedoes and sent to the bottom.
Following the Pearl Harbor attack, not one of the Allies' 10 battleships in the Pacific area remained in service.
South - Northern Borneo and Philippines Islands - The first landings in northern Borneo took place in Sarawak and Brunei on the 16th December, and continued through until late January 1942. In the Philippines, the island of Luzon was the main target. Between the 10th and 22nd, landings were made in the north of the island, in the south, and at Lingayen Gulf in the west. The Japanese forces made a combined drive on the capital of Manila, which was declared an open city. They entered on 2nd January 1942 by which time preparations were being made to attack Gen MacArthur's US and Filipino troops now withdrawn into the Bataan Peninsular just to the west of Manila. The southern island of Mindanao was invaded on 20th December 1941.
East - Hawaiian Islands, Guam, Wake Island and British Gilbert Islands - On the morning of the 7th local time (shortly after the Malay landings) the Japanese Strike Force aircraft hit Pearl Harbor on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. In the Attack on Pearl Harbor, battleships “ARIZONA” and “OKLAHOMA” were t otal losses, three more sank but were later re-commissioned, and the remaining three damaged. Many were killed and a considerable number of aircraft destroyed. Although the Pacific battlefleet ceased to exist, the three priceless fleet carriers “Enterprise”, “Lexington” and “Saratoga” were fortunately absent and the large oil stocks and important repair installations left virtually untouched. By the 10th, Guam in the Mariana Islands was captured and Makin and Tarawa in the British Gilberts occupied. Tarawa was then abandoned until the following September 1942. Wake Island was attacked on the 11th December, but the Japanese were driven off with the loss of two destroyers by the US Marine defenders. A later attempt on the 23rd succeeded.
Monthly Loss Summary
Indian Ocean - 5 merchant ships of 800 tons
Pacific Ocean - 241 merchant ships of 432,000 tons
Allied Command - Early in the month, British Gen Wavell was appointed to command ABDA (American, British, Dutch, Australian) forces responsible for holding Malaya and the Dutch East Indies.
West - Malaya and Burma - In their drive on Singapore, the Japanese captured Kuala Lumpur on the 11th. To the north they crossed into southern Burma from the Kra Isthmus on the 15th, and on the 20th started the invasion of Burma from central Thailand. Thailand shortly declared war on Britain and the United States. On the last day of January, the retreating British, Australian and Indian troops withdrew into Singapore Island, after being driven down the length of the Malay Peninsula. By then carrier "Indomitable" had flown off 48 Hurricanes for Singapore via Java.
South - Philippines and Dutch East lndies - As the US and Filipinos were slowly pushed into Bataan, the Japanese began the invasion of the Dutch East lndies from southern Philippines. First landings took place on the 11th at Tarakan in Borneo and in the Celebes. More followed later in the month, but which time they had reached the Moluccas in the drive south towards Java. 17th - Japanese submarine "I-60" tried to pass through the Sunda Strait for the Indian Ocean. She was located and sunk by destroyer "Jupiter" escorting a convoy to Singapore. 20th - Submarine "I-124" minelaying off Darwin, northern Australia, was sunk by Australian minesweepers "Deloraine", "Katoomba", "Lithgow" and US destroyer "Edsall".
Southeast - Bismark Archipelago - The first Japanese move towards the southeast took place on the 23rd with landings at Kavieng, New Ireland and Rabaul, New Britain. Rabaul became the major Japanese base in the South West Pacific and helped dictate the whole strategy of Allied moves in the next two years.
Monthly Loss Summary
Indian Ocean - 13 merchant ships of 46,000 tons
Pacific Ocean - 30 merchant ships of 71,000 tons
West - Malaya, Singapore and Burma - On the 8th, Japanese forces started crossing over to Singapore Island. Heavy fighting took place, but by the 15th Singapore surrendered and over 80,000 mainly Australian, British and Indian troops were doomed to captivity. Many did not survive as POW's. The Allies had lost the key to South East Asia and the South West Pacific. In Burma the Japanese pushed on towards Rangoon.
South - Dutch East lndies - The two-pronged advance on Java continued with airborne landings on Palembang in southern Sumatra on the 14th, followed up by landings from the sea one day later by forces carried from Indochina. A few days later the islands of Bali and Timor were invaded from the Celebes and Moluccas respectively. The scene was set for the conquest of Java.
27th February-1st March - Battles of the Java Sea - ABDA's main naval force was commanded by the Dutch Adm Doorman and consisted of a mixed squadron of cruisers and destroyers for the defence of Java: heavy cruisers "Exeter" and the US "Houston", light cruisers "Perth" (Australian), "De Ruyter" and Java" (both Dutch), destroyers "Electra", "Encounter", "Jupiter", plus two Dutch and four American. They put to sea on the 26th on the news that invasion convoys were approaching. Failing to find them they headed back to Surabaya the next day, but before getting in, more reports arrived and the Allied force went out again towards a position to the northwest. The main battle started on the 27th at around 16.00 against the two heavy, two light cruisers and 14 destroyers covering the Japanese transports. Both Allied heavies opened fire at long range, but "Exeter" was soon hit and her speed reduced. In the resulting confusion one of the Dutch destroyers was torpedoed and sunk. As "Exeter" returned to Surabaya with the second Dutch destroyer, the Royal Navy destroyers went in to attack and "ELECTRA" was su nk by gunfire. Adm Doorman headed back south towards the Java coast and sent off the US destroyers to refuel. He then turned to the north with his remaining four cruisers and two British destroyers. By now it was late evening and "JUPITER" was lo st probably on a Dutch mine. "Encounter" picked up survivors from the first Dutch destroyer and shortly followed the Americans to Surabaya. The four cruisers, now without any destroyers, were in action sometime before midnight and both "DE RUYTER" and "JAVA" were blasted apart by the big Japanese torpedoes. "Perth" and "Houston" made for Batavia, further west along the north coast of Java. The next evening, on the 28th, "Perth" and "Houston" left Batavia and sailed west for the Sunda Strait to break through to the Indian Ocean. From Surabaya three of the US destroyers went east and eventually reached safety through the shallow Bali Strait. "Exeter's" draught was too great for this route and the damaged cruiser had to make for the Sunda Strait accompanied by destroyer "Encounter" and US destroyer "Pope. "
28th/1st March - BattIe of the Sunda Strait - Late that evening "PERTH" and "HOUSTON" ran into the Japanese invasion fleet in the Strait and attacked the transports. They were soon overwhelmed by the gunfire and torpedoes of the covering cruisers and destroyers and sank in the opening minutes of the 1st March. A Dutch destroyer following astern suffered the same fate.
Later on the morning of the 1st March, "EXETER", "ENCOUNTER" and "POPE" fought a lengthy action with a cruiser force to the northwest of Surabaya before they too succumbed. Of the entire Allied force in the Java Sea, only three old US destroyers managed to get away.
Australia - Aircraft from four of the Pearl Harbor Strike carriers raided Darwin, Northern Territories on the 19th. One American destroyer and a number of valuable transports were lost.
Monthly Loss Summary
Indian Ocean - 18 merchant ships of 38,000 tons
Pacific Ocean - 54 merchant ships of 181,000 tons
West - Burma - Rangoon, the entry port for the Burma Road, fell on the 8th. Towards the end of the month the Andaman Island group in the Indian Ocean flanking the south of Burma was occupied.
South - Philippines and Dutch East lndies - As the US and Filipinos struggled to hold on to Bataan, Gen MacArthur was ordered to leave for Australia. There he assumed the post of Supreme Commander, South West Pacific. US Adm Nimitz was to command the rest of the Pacific. The Java landings went ahead on the 1st and Batavia, the capital of all the DEI, fell. The Allied surrender was agreed on the 9th. On the 12th, northern Sumatra was occupied and the rest of March was spent consolidating the Japanese hold throughout the many islands. Japan's southern perimeter had been secured in less than four months. Strong Japanese naval forces patrolled the Indian Ocean south of Java to stop the escape of Allied shipping.
South East - Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, British Solomons Islands - The Bismarck Sea was secured with two series of landings. To the north the Japanese took Manus and other parts of the Admiralty Islands. In northern New Guinea, they landed in the Huon Peninsula at Lae, Salamaua and Finschhafen. When they occupied the northern island of Bougainville, the scene was set for the fierce Solomons Islands battles to come.
Monthly Loss Summary
Indian Ocean - 65 merchant ships of 68,000 tons
Pacific Ocean - 98 merchant ships of 184,000 tons
5th-9th - Japanese Carrier Attacks on Ceylon - A new British Eastern Fleet had been assembled under the command of Adm Sir James Somerville, recently of Force H. The variety of ships were split into two groups. A fast group included battleship "Warspite", carriers "Indomitable" and "Formidable", heavy cruisers "Cornwall" and "Dorsetshire", two light cruisers plus destroyers. In the slower group were four 'R' class battleships, old carrier "Hermes" and some cruisers and destroyers. Two Australian destroyers accompanied each group. As the Ceylon bases of Colombo and Trincomalee were poorly defended and too far forward, Adm Somerville was operating out of the secret base of Addu Atoll in the Maldive Islands SW of Ceylon. Early in April, two Japanese forces headed into the Indian Ocean. One under Adm Ozawa with carrier "Ryujo" and six cruisers mades for the Bay of Bengal and east coast of India. In a matter of days 23 ships of 112,000 tons were sunk. Japanese submarines sank a further five off the Indian west coast. Bad as this threat was, the real one came from the carrier strike force of Adm Nagumo with five Pearl Harbor carriers - "Akagi", "Hiryu", "Soryu", "Shokaku" and "Zuikaku" - plus four battleships and three cruisers.
The Japanese fleet was first sighted on the 4th south of Ceylon, and shipping cleared from the ports. In the morning of the 5th a heavy raid on Colombo sank destroyer "TENEDOS" and armed merchant cruiser "HECTOR". Heavy cruisers "CORNWALL" and "DORSETSHIRE" were to the southwest, sailing from Colombo to rejoin the Royal Navy's fast group. Found at noon they soon went to the bottom under a series of aircraft attacks. But Adm Nagumo had not yet finished. As Adm Somerville's two groups searched for the Japanese from a position between Addu Atoll and Ceylon, they circled round to the east. From there, on the 9th, Japanese aircraft found the shipping cleared from Trincomalee and back on its way in. Carrier "HERMES", Australian destroyer "VAMPIRE" and corvette "HOLLYHOCK" were amongst those that soon went down. The Japanese ships left the Indian Ocean, never to return again in force. Not knowing this, the surviving ships of the Royal Navy withdrew - the slow group to Kilindini in East Africa and the other to the Bombay area.
Philippines - Conclusion - Japanese units made their final push on Bataan and on the 9th, the Americans and Filipinos surrendered. The island fortress of Corregidor held out until the 6th May. Some resistance continued on other Philippines islands. The infamous "Bataan March" of American and Filipino POW's followed.
The Doolittle Raid - American B-25 bombers under the command of Col Doolittle took off from US carrier "Hornet" for the first ever raid on Japan on the 18th. damaged was slight, but the strategic implications were to prove fatal to the Japanese.
Monthly Loss Summary
Indian Ocean - 31 merchant ships of 154,000 tons
Pacific Ocean - 7 merchant ships of 14,000 tons
Strategic and Maritime Situation - Indian and Pacific Oceans
To the west and south the Japanese had secured their perimeter to plan. They would also do so in the southwest as the British, together with the Chinese were steadily driven out of Burma. The debate was now whether or not to push out to the southeast towards Australia and New Zealand, and eastwards to the United States. Japanese gains had been at little cost, not least on the naval side as can be seen from the losses up to end of April from all causes:
Middle Eastern and North African Studies
Dictionaries, Grammars, Sign Lists
Akkadisches Handwörterbuch : unter Benutzung des lexikalischen Nachlasses von Bruno Meissner (1868-1947) / bearbeitet von Wolfram von Soden..
Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1985.
Hatcher Graduate - Near East Seminar - Rm. 3020 Thayer Academic Bldg (Dept of Near Eastern Studies) | PJ 3540 .S68 1985
Hatcher Graduate - Near East Reference - Rm. 110 N | PJ3540 .S68
A Grammar of Akkadian (1997) and "Key to a Grammar of Akkadian" (1997), by J. Huehnergard.
Hatcher Graduate: PJ 3251 .H841 1997 Hatcher Graduate: PJ 3251 .H851 1997
Akkadian grammar / by Arthur Ungnad revised by Lubor Matous translated by Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. Atlanta, Ga. : Scholars Press, c1992.
Hatcher Graduate: PJ 3251 .U57 1992
Introduction to Akkadian, by R. Caplice (1988).
Hatcher Graduate Library: PJ 3251 .C32 1988
Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik / Wolfram von Soden. Roma : Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1995.
Hatcher Graduate - Near East Reference - Rm. 110 N | DS 42 .A53 v.33 1995
Hatcher Graduate - Near East Seminar - Rm. 3020 Thayer Academic Bldg (Dept of Near Eastern Studies) | DS 42 .A53 v.33 1995
LABAT: Manuel d'épigraphie akkadienne (Presents a list of cuneiform signs that shows their evolution, phonetic values, date and ideographic values)
Near East Seminar - Rm. 3020 Thayer Academic Bldg (Dept of Near Eastern Studies): PJ 3193 .L12 1995 or Hatcher Graduate: PJ 3193 .L12 1988
Soden, Wolfram von, 1908- Das akkadische Syllabar / Wolfram von Soden, Wolfgang Röllig. Roma : Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1976.
Buhr Shelving Facility - Ask at any library | DS 42 .A53 v.42 1976
Credit-Granting Score for Western Civilization I: Ancient Near East to 1648
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*The American Council on Education’s College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE CREDIT) has evaluated CLEP processes and procedures for developing, administering, and scoring the exams. The score listed above is equivalent to a grade of C in the corresponding course. The American Council on Education, the major coordinating body for all the nation’s higher education institutions, seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on key higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives. Visit the ACE CREDIT website for more information.
1900-1908 – Amusement area is built in Washington Park. Initially, it contains a wooden roller coaster, large carousel, Whirligig, and miniature locomotive train. Later, a Ferris Wheel, boat ride and other rides and games are added.
1902 – Frederic H. Burnham Glove Company, founded in Chicago in 1891, moves to Michigan City. A new 30,000 square foot plant is built at 1602 Tennessee St. The plant was expanded in 1975, and in 1977 a retail outlet was added. Manufacturing was ceased in the Michigan City location in 1980, but the retail outlet remains open.
1902 – Michigan City and La Porte are connected by an electric interurban line.
1903 – Electric street cars begin operation in Michigan City. Three routes were included – a west side route ending at the prison, an east side route running on Franklin Street, Ninth Street, and Michigan Street, and a south side route on Franklin to Coolspring Avenue.
1904 – The original Saint Anthony Hospital is built, partially funded by a donation in the name of Mrs. John H. Barker.
1904 – The current pierhead light (referred to as a lighthouse), east pier, fog signal tower and catwalk are built. The old lighthouse is remodeled and the living quarters are enlarged. The lantern is moved from the old lighthouse to the new pierhead light (October 20).
1904 – The first Jewish services are held during the High Holy Days in a rented space.
1904 – A fire damages the second and third stories of Mozart Hall.
1904 – The Pere Marquette depot and freight house are completed in Michigan City. Depot west of Franklin Street on the former site of the DeWolfe farm freight house east of Franklin (July)
1905 – Michigan City’s first paid fire department is organized (May 1).
1905 – The Paper Box Company begins operation.
1905 – The Michigan City Yukons, the city’s first semi-professional baseball team, debut at Donnelly Field.
1905 – The expansion of the Barker Mansion is completed. The mansion includes 38 rooms.
1905 – Oscar Wellnitz builds a cottage at Sheridan Beach, the beginning of development of the Sheridan Beach area.
1906 – The first Franklin Street lift bridge over Trail Creek is completed. The lift bridge replaced the swing bridge built in the 1890s.
1906 – The Grand Opera House, a 1,500-seat performance hall, opens. “The Umpire” is the first play performed. The Grand Opera House becomes the Orpheum Vaudeville Theater and then the Garden Theater, which burns down in 1921. The Tivoli Theater is built on the site in 1922.
1906 – Charles Lawrence wins the state shot put title, the first high school state championship for Michigan City.
1907 – The Michigan City YMCA is formed as a result of a citizen meeting organized by Mr. and Mrs. John H. Barker.
1907 – Adath Israel, the first Jewish congregation in Michigan City, builds a synagogue on Seventh Street. The building was torn down in the late 1960s during urban renewal.
1908 – The first South Shore train arrives in Michigan City from Chicago, under the name “Chicago, Lake Shore and South Bend Railroad.” The first South Shore train runs between Michigan City and South Bend (June 30). The South Shore is the oldest remaining interurban train in the U.S.
1908 – A headless body suspected to be Belle Gunness is found in a fire at her La Porte farmhouse. The remains of at least ten bodies are found buried on her property. She is suspected of killing at least 25 people.
1909 – The old Elston School is built at Spring and Detroit streets, and serves as the high school. It becomes Elston Junior High is 1924, when the new Elston High School is built adjacent to the old school.
1909 – The Superior Courthouse and old post office are built.
1909 – Merchants National Bank is founded. The bank’s first location at 505 Franklin opened on May 3, 1909. A building at 601 Franklin was later constructed.
1909 – Two South Shore trains collide head-on near Shadyside Crossing in Porter (June 19). Eastbound South Shore train No. 59 was returning from the Cobe Cup automobile races in Crown Point when it overran a crossing point of tracks and collided with westbound train No. 58. At least 10 people were killed, and 40 passengers were injured.
Around 1910 – Doll’s Park, a popular picnic grove, sports facility, and dance hall, opens on Carroll Avenue near the southwest corner of Carroll and Michigan Boulevard. Doll’s Park was a popular picnic grove with benches, tables, an open-roofed lunch counter, and an open dance hall with elevated bandstand. Doll’s Park began to deteriorate and was torn down in the early 1940s. Eastgate Plaza was built on the site in the 1950s.
1910 – The Franklin Street Bridge collapses after the excursion ship United States collides with it (June 24). The bridge is rebuilt in 1911.
1910 – The Ahksakewah Canoe Club builds its clubhouse on the east side of the basin. The clubhouse served as a boating and social center, but the condition of the basin steadily deteriorated due to dumping. The building was torn down in 1931, and the club faded into obscurity.
1911 – The first plane lands in the city. Donald Gregory landed the plane on a test strip in a vacant field between Barker Avenue and Greenwood Avenue.
1911 – The original band shell is destroyed in a fire. A band stand designed by H.M. Miles is constructed and rededicated on July 6, 1911. The Michigan City Municipal Band held weekly summer band concerts at the band stand until 1978, when the amphitheater was completed.
1912 – The Michigan City YMCA facility is opened.
1912 or 1913 – The Sinai Congregation is organized by Moses Moritz.
1912 – Calumet Electric Company is incorporated on August 2, 1912. The company merges on June 2, 1926 to become the Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO).
1913 – The biggest fire in the history of Michigan City begins in the south lumber yards of the Haskell & Barker Car Company. It burns for 10 hours over 20 acres, causing $700,000 in damages, before it is brought under control.
1914 – Marquette Hall is built.
1914 – The Bader Elmoneer Society is founded to teach the history and practice of the Islamic faith.
1914 – The second Michigan Central Railroad depot is destroyed in a fire. A new depot is built and completed the following year. The site still functions as an Amtrak stop.
1914 – First Baptist Church is completed.
1915 – The lake front amusement grounds catch on fire, heavily damaging the roller coaster and other attractions.
1915 – The Eastland Disaster, the largest loss of life from a shipwreck on the Great Lakes – An excursion ship named the S.S. Eastland is commissioned to take the families of Western Electric Company workers from Chicago to Michigan City for a picnic. The overloaded ship rolls over while tied to the dock in the Chicago River, killing 844 passengers.
1915 – The Life-Saving Station is adopted into the U.S. Coast Guard.
1916 – Sacred Heart Church is built.
1916 – A six-day Homecoming celebration is held (August 21-26).
1917 – The United States enters World War I. More than 2,000 Michigan City men register for service. A total of 30 Michigan City men are killed in action, in training, or as a result of the pandemic flu outbreak during the conflict.
1917 – The Michigan Central Railroad Repair Shops, employer of hundreds of skilled laborers, moves from Michigan City to Niles, Michigan.
1917 – Central School at 8th & Spring is renovated.
1918 – The Chamber of Commerce is formed by a group of citizens headed by Joseph Hays of the Hays Corporation. It soon attracts 22 new factories to town.
1918 – The Long Beach Company is formed. The first subdivisions are platted the following year.
1918-1920 – The Spanish Influenza Pandemic strikes Michigan City, requiring the city to temporarily close church services, public gatherings, and most commerce. As many as 200 new cases a day were reported in the worst of the outbreak.
1919(?) – Martin Krueger donates virgin woods for the creation of a Memorial Park honoring the men killed in the Great War.
1919 – The YMCA Seniors, the city’s first semi-professional basketball team, begin play.
1920 – The Dunes Highway, the shortest direct route between Detroit and Chicago at the time, is approved by the state.
1920 – Warren G. Harding meets with political leaders at the Vreeland Hotel prior to the Republican Convention, at which he is nominated for President.
1920-1924 Twenty-two new factories, including Weil-McLain, Hoosier Factories (Jaymar-Ruby), and Steel Fabricating, open in Michigan City during a time of great economic growth.
1920s – Sheridan Beach Hotel is constructed.
1921 – The Garden Theater (formerly the Grand Opera House and then the Orpheum) is destroyed in a fire (February 4).
1921 – The Spaulding Hotel is completed.
1921 – The Town of Long Beach is incorporated (July 5).
1921 – Captain Joseph O. Simmerman and Patrolman George Spencer are killed in front of the Faroh Bros. store on Franklin St.
1922 – The Tivoli Theater opens at the site of the Grand Opera House, showing films for a nickel.
1922 – The Lakeview Casino opens in Washington Park. It includes table games, slots, an entertainment hall, and an eatery.
1922 – The Masonic Temple is built.
1922 – Haskell & Barker merges with the Pullman Company, which is later called Pullman-Standard.
1922 – Automatic electric coaling station for Michigan Central Railroad is completed and placed in operation (Dec. 15).
1922 – Floyd Fitzsimmons, Benton Harbor boxing promoter, builds the Sky Blue Arena, an open-air 30,000 seat concrete arena. Over the next five years, it features title fights and exhibitions from such boxers as Jack Dempsey, Benny Leonard, Tommy Gibbons and Georges Carpentier. The arena was demolished on September 14, 1927.
1923 – The Second Street bridge is built.
1924 – The Bader Elmoneer Society is reorganized and renamed the Asser El Jadeed (now The Islamic Center of Michigan City). The Asser El Jadeed building, built in the early 1920s, was the first Shi’i mosque in the United States.
1924 – John Lloyd Wright builds his house and studio in Long Beach. He designed the Long Beach Elementary School (1927) and Long Beach Town Hall (1931), among other properties in the area.
1924 – Elston High School is constructed at Detroit & Spring on the site of the old cemetery, which largely had been removed to Greenwood. The building features the well-known Robert Grafton mural of life along the Michigan City harbor in the 1840s. The building also includes Elston Junior High. Additions are added in 1931, 1954, 1966, 1977, and 1980.
1924 – The Elston Red Devils advanced to the state basketball tournament for the first time. They were defeated in the opening game.
1925 – The Chicago, Lake Shore and South Bend Railroad is bought in receivership by Samuel Insull and organized as the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad.
1925 – Niemann School is built.
1925 – The Warren Building is completed.
1926 – World War I “doughboy” monument in Washington Park is dedicated on Armistice Day, November 11, 1926. The Service Star Legion War Mothers conducted a fundraising drive to erect the monument. It is composed of granite with a marble base, and features a life-sized figure of a “doughboy” and names of the servicemen.
1926 – The Sixth Street bridge is constructed at a cost of $100,000.
1926 – Several utility companies, including Calumet Electric Company, merge to form NIPSCO. Samuel Insull is NIPSCO’s first chairman.
1927 – The Merchants National Bank building at 601 Franklin opens (February 26). The building replaced Leubke Hall, previously called Burkhart Hall.
1927 – The Eleventh Street Station for the South Shore Line opens (May). The two-story building cost more than $200,000 to complete. It has a terra-cotta facade and neoclassical design. The station was the longest lasting storefront urban depot, closing in 1986. The building is still standing.
1927 – The Oasis Ballroom opens in the building of the Lakeview Casino, which went out of business. The ballroom retains the desert oasis theme of the casino. It was one of the largest dance halls in the Midwest, holding in excess of 2,400 people. Many top entertainers performed at the Oasis, including Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Tommy Dorsey, and Lawrence Welk. After the big band era was over, a game center was added to the building to try to capitalize on the pinball craze.
1927 – Long Beach Elementary School, designed by architect John Lloyd Wright, opens at Belle Plaine and Oriole Trail.
1927 – The Benevolent Protective Order of Elks building on Franklin Street is completed. The building is in use today as an office building.
1927 – The “E” Street bridge over Trail Creek, a frame structure, is built.
1928 – The Washington Park Zoo is built. It expands throughout the 1930s with the assistance of WPA workers. The WPA built Monkey Island in 1934 and the Zoo Castle in 1937, along with other installations.
1929 – Stock market crashes.
1929 – John Dillinger is imprisoned for almost a year at Indiana State Prison. A few years later, he is credited with facilitating the escape of ten inmates.
1929 – NIPSCO begins construction on the generating plant at the site of the former Hoosier Slide, once a 200-foot sand dune that had been mined for 30 years for glassmaking. The plant is completed around 1931.
South African major mass killings timeline 1900-2012
Between the 20th and 21st century, a number of people lost their lives in South Africa amid liberation struggle. However, some of these events were carried out beyond the borders of South Africa by members of security police as they became known as cross border raids. Other events emerged from wage strikes. In the early 1990s, the political violence claimed a number of lives particularly among Africans. In August 2012, the history repeated itself when 34 mineworkers were shot and killed by police while on wage protest at Marikana, North West Province. 1913 A strike of 9000 African miners takes place at Jagersfontein Diamond mine, after a fellow-worker is kicked to death by a White overseer. White employees join in brutally suppressing the strike. Eleven African mineworkers are killed and 37 injured. 1921 24 May, the Smuts government took action against a black sect, the Israelites, under the leadership of Enoch Mgijima, who squatted at Ntabelanga near Bulhoek in the Queenstown area of the Eastern Cape. The police issued an ultimatum demanding that the Israelites evacuate the area and warning that if they failed to comply, their leader would be arrested and their homes demolished. Soon afterwards the Israelites launched an attack armed with clubs, assegais and swords. They were fired upon by the police and more than 180 people were killed and more than 100 were wounded. 1922 May, the 1922 mineworkers strike becomes a seminal event in SA's history. Scores of people lost their lives official records list the number of dead people in the episode as 129 soldiers and policemen, 43 civilians and 39 miners. It took on the dimensions of a revolt when the miners organised themselves into armed commandos. 1946 12 August, African mine workers of the Witwatersrand went on strike in support of a demand for higher wages - 10 shillings a day. They continued the strike for a week in the face of the most savage police terror, in which officially 1,248 workers were wounded and nine people were killed. Lawless police and army violence smashed the strike. The resources of the racist State were mobilised, almost on a war footing, against the unarmed workmen. 1950 27 March, 14 people are killed by South African police while protesting against stock-culling in Witziehoek, Orange Free State (now known as Free State) 01 May, 18 protesters are attacked and killed by police in Alexandra and other surrounding areas while engaged in a general strike held in favour of full franchise and against discriminatory laws. 1960 24 January, nine policemen were killed by an angry mob at Cato Manor in Durban. The incident happened after a routine raid by police searching for illicit liquor. They were stoned and hacked to death. The police attempted to escape after they were ambushed, but were overwhelmed by the mob. Among those killed were four White policemen and five Blacks. 21 March, a breakaway organisation from the African National Congress (ANC), the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) staged an anti-pass demonstration outside Sharpeville police station near Vereeniging. They handed over their passes demanding an end to the pass laws. However, the march ended in tragedy when the police opened fire on the marchers, killing 69 people and injuring close to 200 people, in what has come to be known as the Sharpeville Massacre. Sharpeville Massacre 1980 17 June, 25 pupils are killed by the South African police during a school boycott and a general rioting in Elsies River near Cape Town. 1981 30 January, 12 people are killed in Operation Beanbag, an attack by the South African army on the planning and control headquarters of the African National Congress (ANC) in Matola, Mozambique. A total of 15 members of uMkhonto we Sizwe were killed in the raid. In addition, a Portuguese engineer Jose Ramos was "mistakenly identified" by the South African forces as Joe Slovo, one of the raid's main targets, and was shot at a roadblock. 1982 9 December, A cross-border raid by South African Defence Force (SADF) Commandos kills 12 Lesotho nationals and 30 South Africans (most of them members of the African National Congress- ANC) in Maseru, Lesotho. Among the dead were children, students, refugees and visitors from South Africa. According to a statement by the South African government the following day, the SADF claimed to have successfully attacked 12 ANC 'terrorist targets' within Lesotho. 1983 20 May, 19 South African Defence Force (SADF) and South African Police members are killed after car bomb explodes at the headquarters of the SADF in Pretoria. 23 May, Following the African National Congress’s (ANC) 20 May 1983 car bombing of headquarters of the South African Defence Force in Pretoria, ANC bases in a suburb of Maputo, Mozambique's capital city, are bombed in retaliation, leaving 6 people dead. 1984 September, The South African police in the Vaal Triangle kill 26 protesters as the clash between them and police intensify. The residents were protesting against rent increases. 1985 18-19 February, 18 protesters are killed by the South African police in Crossroads near Cape Town as they were resisting forced removals to the newly-built township of Khayelitsha. 21 March, As part of commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Sharpeville shootings, a large crowd from Langa, Uitenhage begins marching to KwaNobuhle Uitenhage to attend a funeral that had in fact been banned. On the edge of white Uitenhage, through which they had to pass to get to KwaNobuhle, they were confronted by two police vehicles and a contingent of police who instructed them to disperse and then opened fire killing 20 people. 14 June, 13 people are killed in Gaborone, Botswana including, Thamsanqa Mnyele who was a very active cadre in the uMkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). Mk's cadre Thamsanqa Mnyele 26 June, 10 people are killed by South African police in KwaThema, Springs, a township on the East Rand. 5-14 August, In a period of less than two weeks, 70 people are killed as clashes between police, amabutho (IFP regiments) and activist intensify. 11 August, 23 people are killed by police in Duncan Village, East London in the Eastern Cape. 28-31 August, An estimated 31 people are killed by the South African police following a riot after Mandela march. 18 November, 14 people are killed by the South African police in Queenstown, Eastern Cape. 21 November, Police open fire on a crowd gathering in Mamelodi, Pretoria killing 12 people. The people had gathered to protest against the army’s presence in the township, high rents, and the imposition of restrictions on the holding of the funerals. 20 December, Six South African nationals and three Lesotho nationals are killed in Maseru, Lesotho. 30 December, 11 people are killed by an angry mob at Gugulethu near Cape Town. This happened after the killing of a community councillor. 1986 1 January, 12 people are killed by an angry mob in Moutse, KwaNdebele. KwaNdebele vigilante attack on Moutse villagers is triggered by government’s promise that the area would be transferred to the homeland on New Year’s Day. 15-21 February, 27 people lose their lives after as a clash between police and youth intensify. This was after the funeral of a schoolboy who was killed by a shopping complex security guard. 3 March, Seven African National Congress (ANC) guerrillas are killed by the South African police in Gugulethu near Cape Town. 26 March, 26 protesters are killed by Bophuthatswana police in Winterveld, Bophuthatswana. 26 March, 13 rioters are killed by police after a crowd stormed a bottle store in KwaZakhele, Port Elizabeth. 23 April, Nine Alexander residents are killed by the South African police following a rent stayaway called by the Alexander boycott committee. 13-14 May, 12 people are killed in Vlaklaagte, KwaNdebele as the funeral of Mbokotho victim sparked widespread violent demonstrations against ‘independence.’ 17-26 May, within a space of ten days, 44 people are killed in ‘Witdoeke’ clashes in Cape Town Squatter camps. 20-25 May, 11 people are killed in KwaMashu, township outside Durban following the outbreak of amabutho (regiments) clashes. 9-11 June, 11 people are killed in ‘Witdoeke’ (white headband) clashes in Cape Town Squatter camps. 6 July, Nine Katlehong, East Rand development board members are killed by unknown people while patrolling in two attacks. 26-27 July, 24 demonstrators are killed by the South African police in White City, Soweto as a clash between police and residents on rent boycott intensifies. 21 January, 12 people who were guests at the Ntuli family home (family of a United Democratic Front member) are killed by vigilantes. 25 September, 13 Inkatha Youth Brigade (IYB) members including three off-duty police officers are killed while attending a meeting. 1988 3 December, 11 people are killed by South African police while attending an all night funeral vigil aimed at remedying lack of support for Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) Chairman, Jerome Gwala. 1989 6 September, 29 demonstrators are killed by South African police in Cape Town while protesting election. 1990 22 July, 19 people are killed, allegedly by Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in collusion with South African police during the IFP launch at the Sebokeng Stadium in Vaal. 23-25 July, In retaliation of the killings of the 22 July in Sebokeng, 30 people are killed in the area allegedly by Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) members. 1-11 August, 13 are killed in Sebokeng, allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African police. 5-23 August, About 122 Soweto residents are killed, allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African police. 12-15 August, About 150 Tokoza residents are killed, allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African police after forced expulsion of non-IFP from hostels and attacks on Phola Park. 14 August, 24 Katlehong residents are killed, allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African police during pre-dawn attacks on Crossroads squatter camp. 1-2 September, 44 residents in Tokoza, Tembisa and Vosloorus are killed during attacks on townships. 4 September, 19 hostel dwellers are killed, allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African police. 4 September, 11 hostel residents are killed allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African Defense Force. 8-9 September, 26 residents in Tladi township are killed allegedly by vigilantes. 28 October, 16 residents of Naledi Township in Soweto are killed, allegedly by IFP members in a revenge for the IFP member who was killed. 15-19 November, 34 residents of Katlehong, a township also located on the outskirts if Johannesburg are killed, allegedly by IFP supporters in an attempt to take over Zonkizizwe squatter camp. 26 November, 13 Dobsonville hostel residents are killed allegedly by vigilantes. 26 November, 11 Katlehong residents are killed by vigilantes during a night attack at the Mandela View squatter camp. 2 December, 30 people are massacred in Tokoza a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, allegedly by IFP supporters as political violence intensifies. 3-8 December, In an ongoing series of attacks and revenge attacks 33 people are killed in Tokoza, East Rand as political violence escalates. 11 December, 52 people are massacred in Tokoza Township, allegedly by IFP supporters. 1991 12 January, 45 African National Congress (ANC) mourners are killed in Sebokeng, allegedly by IFP members in collusion with South African police while attending a funeral vigil for ANC member. 3 March, 24 IFP members are killed, allegedly by Xhosa speakers in Meadowlands, Soweto in an attempt to take over the Mzimhlope hostel. 24 March, 12 African National Congress (ANC) supporters are killed in Daveyton, Gauteng, allegedly by South African police. The incident unfolded when police was dispersing an ‘illegal’ gathering. 14 April, 11 Nancefield residents are killed following a Clash between Nancefield hostel and Power Park squatter camp. 28 April, 10 IFP mourners are killed in Meadowlands after a service for assassinated 1FF leader. 23 May, 13 Sebokeng residents are killed while in a beer-hall. 8 September, 13 IFP members are killed under mysterious circumstances in Mofolo, Soweto. 8 September, 23 IFP supporters are killed in Tokoza by 3 unknown gunmen as political violence escalates. 13 October, 10 Mapetla township residents are killed by unknown gunmen in a tavern. 1992 17 June, The Joe Slovo Informal settlement in Boipatong outside Vereeniging is attacked by a group of about 300 armed men from Kwa Madala Hostelin nearby Sebokeng Township killing 46 people and injuring others. The armed men were affiliated to the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and observers suspected that the attack was aimed at undermining the delicate process of negotiations between the Nationalist Party (NP) government and the African National Congress (ANC). 7 September, Around 80,000 protesters gathered outside of Bisho, the capital city of Ciskei (an independent homeland or Bantustan), and demanded an end to the military government of Brigadier Joshua Gqozo and incorporation of the Ciskei into South Africa. Soldiers then opened fire killing 28 protestors and one soldier, and injuring over 200 others. ANC supporters take cover on the Ciskeien side of the border with South Africa after they were fired on, September 7, 1992. Photographer: Greg Marinovich. Source: Africa Media Online 18 November, Ten Sebokeng residents are killed, allegedly by uMkhonto weSizwe members. 1993 18 April, 19 Sebokeng residents are killed by gunmen driving through the area, opening fire randomly for four hours. 26 June, 12 Sebokeng residents are killed by gunmen driving through the area, opening fire randomly. 12 July, Less than a month after the 26 June massacre, 14 Sebokeng residents are killed by gunmen driving around the area. 8 October, Five youth, including two 12-year-old children are murdered as they lay sleeping in their home at Mtata, Eastern Cape. Their home was believed to be the arms storage facility for the Azanian Peoples' Liberation Army (APLA), police intelligence also believed that there were eighteen APLA operatives staying at the house. After the incident General George Meiring, Chief of the Defence Force said “There were actually only five people in the house and all were killed because they reacted hostilely (sic).” 2012 16 August, South African police open fire on striking miners armed with machetes and sticks at Lonmin's Marikana platinum mine, killing at least 35 people. In the days leading to the massacre, 11 people were killed allegedly by mine workers. This is the first incident of this nature post 1994 democratic election.
Coleman M. (1998), ‘A Crime Against Humanity’, (Mayibuye Books) pp 262-266|
The Forgotten Trans History of the Wild West
From 1900 to 1922, Harry Allen was one of the most notorious men in the Pacific Northwest. The West was still wide and wild then, a place where people went to find their fortunes, escape the law, or start a new life. Allen did all three. Starting in the 1890s, he became known as a rabble-rouser, in and out of jail for theft, vagrancy, bootlegging, or worse. Whatever the crime, Allen always seemed to be a suspect because he refused to wear women’s clothes, and instead dressed as a cowboy, kept his hair trim, and spoke in a baritone. Allen, who was assigned female at birth, was actually far from the only trans* man who took refuge on the frontier.
Despite a seeming absence from the historical record, people who did not conform to traditional gender norms were a part of daily life in the Old West, according to Peter Boag, a historian at Washington State University and the author of Re-Dressing America’s Frontier Past. While researching a book about the gay history of Portland, Boag stumbled upon hundreds and hundreds of stories concerning people who dressed against their assigned gender, he says. He was shocked at the size of this population, which he’d never before encountered in his time as a queer historian of the American West. Trans people have always existed all over the world. So how had they escaped notice in the annals of the Old West?
Seattle in 1911. Seattle Municipal Archives/CC by 2.0
Boag expanded his research beyond the Northwest, but limited it to towns west of the Mississippi, and the period of time from the California Gold Rush through statehood for all the Western continental territories. It wasn’t that this time and place was more open or accepting of trans people, but that it was more diffuse and unruly, which may have enabled more people to live according to their true identities, Boag says. “My theory is that people who were transgender in the East could read these stories that gave a kind of validation to their lives,” he says. “They saw the West as a place where they could live and get jobs and carry on a life that they couldn’t have in the more congested East.” Consider Joseph Lobdell, born and assigned female in Albany, New York. When he surfaced in Meeker County, Minnesota, he became known as “The Slayer of Hundreds of Bears and Wild-Cats.”
Joseph Lobdell, in his youth and later. Public Domain
In 1912, Allen was arrested in Portland, on the charges of “white slavery,” as he had traveled across state lines with a woman named Isabelle Maxwell, a sex worker who was posing as his wife. In reality, Maxwell was Allen’s partner, and the two had fled across the region to stay one step ahead of the law. Portland police sentenced him to 90 days in jail for “vagrancy”—one of those vague charges that stood in for gender non-conformity.
This opportunity for reinvention seemed to be particularly available to people assigned female at birth who lived their lives as men. In an 1908 interview with The Seattle Sunday Times, Allen articulated his discomfort with his assigned sex. “I did not like to be a girl did not feel like a girl, and never did look like a girl,” he said. “So it seemed impossible to make myself a girl and, sick at heart over the thought that I would be an outcast of the feminine gender, I conceived the idea of making myself a man.” Allen’s identity fascinated local papers, which cast it as part of the zeitgeist of the American frontier. One publication framed him among “the scum of the West” for his active career of saloon brawling, bootlegging, bronco busting, and horse stealing. The press gawked at his swagger, foul mouth, and penchant for hard drink. Allen found near-infinite possibility in men’s attire, and worked as a bartender, barber, and longshoreman.
Harry Allen, as the papers depicted him. Courtesy Peter Boag/Public Domain
From 1880 to 1930, Seattle’s population ballooned from around 3,500 to more than 350,000, a testament to the opportunities the town presented. According to Boag, local papers offer some of the most thorough, extensive records of people who were likely trans on the frontier. Naturally these publications lacked the language or understanding of gender we have today, and the papers paid their bills with sensation, scandal, and shock. So they got a lot of milage out of encounters between “civilized” society and gender non-conforming individuals.
Allen’s identity was notable for how public it was. On the other hand, many trans people lived out their lives without drawing the attention of local papers. In Boag’s research, a trans person’s assigned sex was most likely to be discovered upon death or serious illness. When 80-year-old lumberjack Sammy Williams died in Montana in 1908, the undertaker discovered his assigned sex, dumbfounding the community that had only ever known him as a man.
Allen was notorious for being a lothario, wooing women across the Pacific Northwest, according to this Seattle Sunday Times story. Courtesy Peter Boag
It was easy for tabloids and historians of the time to explain away trans men as a quirk of the frontier. It was, after all, a land dominated by men: violent, physically demanding, and steeped in the oppression of women. It seemed logical that certain women might choose to disguise themselves as men for safety, or to gain access to power and agency—with no queer motive. “If people thought you were a man, you wouldn’t be bothered or molested, there’s good evidence that some women dressed as men to get better paying employment,” Boag says. The best job most women could hope for in the Old West was cooking or housekeeping. On the other hand, someone assigned female at birth who passed for a man could earn real wages.
In the 1870s, Jeanne Bonnet, who was assigned female at birth, was arrested several times in San Francisco for dressing like a man. Though Bonnet explained this sartorial choice as a career choice—they worked as a frog catcher, a job that simply could not be done in a dress—they wore men’s clothing throughout their life, suggesting a motivation more personal than a paycheck.
This idea—among others—that a person might assume another gender identity for purely practical reasons, is part of the reason that there is little explicit record of a queer history of the Old West, and says almost nothing about those people assigned male at birth who lived their lives as women. Trans women had little safety or comfort to gain by living as women, and Boag encountered far fewer of their stories in his research. Consider the case of the woman only known by a married name, Mrs. Nash. Born in Mexico and assigned male at birth, Nash worked as a laundress for the Seventh Cavalry in Montana for over a decade, during which time she married three different enlisted men.
Mrs. Nash, a celebrated tamale cook who took three husbands in Montana. Courtesy Peter Boag
When Nash died of appendicitis in 1878, the woman preparing her body for burial discovered her assigned sex. In the months following, national papers covering her case claimed she had always been seen as an outsider of suspect gender, but eyewitness accounts collected in the Bismarck Tribune described her as a respected woman, interior decorator, midwife, and prized tamale cook who was a core part of the Fort Lincoln community. Nash, who was Mexican, also had her race cited as a way to cast doubt on her character, according to Boag. This wasn’t uncommon, as racialized descriptions were connected with a kind of effeminacy, at least in the case of trans women.
As the West changed, so too did its apparent prevalence of non-conforming dress, which could not coexist with settled, civilized America. “As the frontier closed and the Wild West disappeared, these people who found a life there, found validation there, also disappeared from our history,” Boag says. Now, the Pacific Northwest pays homage to its trans forebears in the Museum of Trans Hirstory & Art (MOTHA), a series of events and installations—a fittingly transient existence when considering the wandering nature of Allen and others. Chris E. Vargas, a trans man who lives in Bellingham, Washington, created MOTHA after confronting the huge gap of knowledge between the Pacific Northwest’s well-covered gay history and less-researched trans history, he said in an interview with Seattle Weekly.
Miton Matson was arrested in San Jose in 1895 for dressing as a man. Courtesy Peter Boag
The one thought that has stayed in Boag’s mind throughout his research was the sheer resilience of the trans people who struck out for a life on the frontier. In particular, he felt drawn to the case of Alice Baker, who was assigned male at birth and worked as a schoolteacher in Harrah, Oklahoma. After someone reported her to the police, she traveled to a number of places (Segundo, Colorado Portland, Oregon Kansas City, Kansas) until she was caught, each time starting anew with an arsenal of names (Alice, Mabel, and Madeline Baker, and Irene Pardee). These encounters with the law, however, did not seem to stop Baker from living as her true self. In her time on the lam, she received marriage proposals from several evangelical ministers and a lawyer, the latter of whom she married. Before Baker dropped off the map in 1913, she had traveled to Japan, where she and her husband sold counterfeit bills for gold. “I had the evidence that, place after place and year after year, she survived,” Boag says. “She was clearly someone who really struggled and succeeded despite all the setbacks that came with being herself.”
* As the term “transgender” did not emerge until the late 20th century, it was not a category these people would have used themselves, writes Emily Skidmore in True Sex: The Lives of Trans Men at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. But Skidmore sees trans, rather than transgender, as a helpful umbrella term to acknowledge and encompass the gender variance expressed by historical individuals, and so we use the same terminology in this article.
Near East Timeline - History
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Earliest records - The Elmira area was called Kanawaholla or Canaweola by the Cayuga Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy.
1771 - First map made of the region "Country of the Six Nations" by Guy Johnson (Chemung County was a blank space)
1777 - Possibly some Spanish travelers visited the area (Spanish Hill near Waverly)
1778 - George Washington's troops surveyed the Chemung County area
1779 - Mammoth or mastodon tusk found - sent to England for scientific testing - never returned.
1779 - Battle of Newtown.
1783 - Matthias Hollenback opened the Newtown trading post in the vicinity of today's Kennedy Valve.
1783 - First settlers arrive in Newtown (Elmira), Chemung, Big Flats, Breesport, and Horseheads.
1784 - Tryon County became Montgomery County
1787 - John Breese, first white permanent settler in Horseheads
1788 - John Hendy built a log cabin and began farming in West Elmira
1789 - Sarah Breese was the first white child born in Chemung County (Horseheads)
1789 - Terrible weather-related famine hit the area. Residents lived on beans and roots.
1790 - Village of Newtown laid out. Earliest streets - Sullivan, Water, and Church. Village of Wisnerburg laid out - earliest streets - Main, Water, and Gray
1790 - Town of Dewittsburg organized in the vicinity of today's DeWitt Avenue on the east side
1791 - Tioga County split from Montgomery County (included today's Chemung County)
1791 - "Treaty of Painted Post" signed in Elmira on today's Madison Avenue owing to high water in Painted Post. The treaty made it "safe" for settlers to move to our area.
1792 -Township of Chemung established
1792 - First frame house in Newtown (Elmira)
1793 - First lodge. Masons
1794 - Makeshift courthouse was the tavern "The Stoner House."
1795 - First church - First Presbyterian Church of Elmira
1796 about - First real courthouse built on the corner of Cross (Market) and Main (Sullivan) Streets
1797 - Louis-Phillippe, the French Duke of Orleans visited Newtown and stayed at the Kline House
1799 - First grist mill on Newtown Creek
1800 - Newtown (Elmira) added to the regional mail route
1800 - First use of the name "Elmira" as a place. Supposed named for Elmira Teall, daughter of Nathan Teall.
1801 - First post office opened in Newtown (Elmira) - mail service took 4 days by horseback to Wilkes-Barre
1803 - First "highway" built - Newtown (Elmira) to Watkins Glen
1803 or 1804 - Last remaining local Native Americans left and went to the Batavia, NY area.
1807 - First turnpike from Elmira to Seneca Lake
1808 - "Elmira" meaning "fair outlook" - official TOWN name change from Newtown to Elmira on April 6 - "Town of Elmira, Village of Newtown."
1812 - First Baptist Church built in Wellsburg
1815 - Two newspapers in county, The Investigator and The Telegraph
1817 - Berwick Turnpike from Wellsburg to the Pennsylvania state line opened
1819 - First stagecoach in the area - Wilkes-Barre to Elmira
1819 - John Arnot moved to Elmira
1822 - Town of Southport established (included all of the Southside from the river to Bulkhead)
1822 - Towns of Big Flats and Erin established
1823 - Towns of Veteran and Catlin established
1824 - First bridge over Chemung River opened at Lake Street
1824 - Courthouse moved to Market Street
1824 - Elmira Gazette newspaper founded
1826 - First dam built across Chemung River
1827 - First restaurant in Elmira opened
1828 - Second dam built in the Chemung River at the foot of College Street.
1828 - Name change from "Village of Newtown" to "Village of Elmira."
1828 - First tavern in Horseheads
1829 - Resident Amira Matthews Thompson published a volume of her poems "Lyre of Tioga." Earliest known literature in the area.
1830 - Ground was broken by oldest resident John Hendy for the Chemung Canal connecting Elmira to Seneca Lake, the Erie Canal, the Great Lakes, and beyond. Link for more info
1830 - First fire company
1832 - Elmira and Williamsport Railroad opened
1833 - Chemung Canal opened. Link for more info
1833 - First purchase of a fire engine
1834 - Trinity Church organized
1836 - Chemung County formed. Originally part of Montgomery County, then Tioga County.
1836 - Baldwin Street Academy (one of first schools)
1836 - First county poorhouse opened
1836 - Second Street Cemetery opened
1837 - Name Horseheads changed to Fairport
1839 - The old Presbyterian church's bell announced the time for the local area.
1839 - First fire chief Silas Haight appointed
1840s - Tusk found in the Chemung River - while on loan to Lafayette College (Easton, PA) destroyed in a fire
1840 - Great Fire of 1840 in Elmira - lost Lake Street Bridge
1844 - John W. Jones arrives in Elmira. Link for more info
1844 - First telegraph office in Elmira opened - line ran to Ithaca (Cornell, Sage, & Co.)
1844 - First organized fire department in Elmira (Hook and Ladder Company)
1845 - Town of Fairport changes name to Horseheads
1846 - First telegraph line Elmira to Ithaca
1846 - Park Church organized
1846 - First attempt at a daily newspaper - the short-lived Daily Karlon . Weekly papers at the time were the Gazette, the Republican , and the Chemung Democrat
1846 - Plank Road (toll road) built between Elmira and PA State Line. (Today's Pennsylvania Avenue)
1847 - Photography introduced in Elmira
1848 - St. Peter and Paul's Church (first Catholic church in Elmira) opened
1848 - Fire Company No. 3 organized
1849 - Erie Railroad opens to service to Elmira
1849 - Illuminating gas introduced in Elmira
1849 - Burning of the Eagle Tavern
1851 - The full length of the Erie Railroad opened. President Fillmore and Daniel Webster were in Elmira to celebrate
1851 - President Millard Fillmore and Daniel Webster stayed at the Rathbun House while in town to celebrate the completion of the Erie Railroad to Lake Erie
1852 - Gleason's Water Cure opened on East Hill
1852 - Maps still interchangeably use the words 'Tioga River" or "Chemung River" for today's Chemung River
1853 - Tusk on Big Island (near today's Dunn Field) on Elmira's Southside. On display at local restaurants of the time - it has since disappeared.
1853 - Chemung, New York - remains of mammoth found while digging the Junction Canal. Today's whereabouts unknown
1853 - First store in Lowman
1853 - John Arnot's Gas Works opened on Madison Avenue. Provided fuel for Elmira's first street lamps.
1854 - Elmira & Williamsport Railroad completed
1854 - Eureka Engine Company(fire department) and the Young American Fire Company organized
1854 - Junction Canal (from Chemung Canal at Washington Avenue in Elmira to Sayre, PA) opened
1854 - Thomas K. Beecher becomes pastor at the Park Church
1855 - Elmira College founded as "Elmira Female College
1858 - Woodlawn Cemetery opened
1858 - Elmira YMCA organized
1859 - First school board
1859 - Elmira Free Academy incorporated
1860 - Lake Street Church organized
1860 - Elmira Rolling Mills chartered
1861 - Organization of the local military outfit " the Southern Tier Rifles" soon incorporated into 24 infantry organizations mustered in at Elmira, as well as 6 cavalry organizations
1861 - Elmira was designated as one of 3 NY military depots for the Civil War (3 barracks) - the one along the river soon became a Prison Camp.
1862 - Chemung County Courthouse erected
1862 - Elmira Free Academy opened - provided free education to anyone who desired.
1862 - Horseheads business district destroyed by fire
1863 - Jewish synagogue erected on High Street
1864 - Elmira became a city
1864 and 1865, John W. Jones buried 2,963 Confederate prisoners of war in Woodlawn Cemetery.
1864 - First steam fire engine purchased
1866 - Huge fire in Elmira December 23
1866 - Independent Hose Company organized
1867 - Opera House opened in Elmira
1868 - Southern Tier Orphans Home on Franklin Street opened.
1869 - Elmira Waterworks organized
1870 - Local girl Olivia Langdon married Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in Elmira. Link for more info
1870 - AME Zion church built
1870 - Lehigh Valley Railroad extended to Elmira
1871 - Elmira Driving Park incorporated
1871 - First horse-drawn trolley car Elmira to Horseheads
1871 - St. Patrick's Church erected
1871 - Elmira & Horseheads Railway opened - cars pulled by single horses
1872 - Golden Glow, New York - 2 mammoth molars and jawbone found. Today's whereabouts unknown.
1872 - Chemung Canal abandoned
1873 - First concrete sidewalks
1873 - First Sullivan's Monument dedicated
1873 - Letter carrier service established
1873 - First fire engine from LaFrance Fire Engine Company
1873 - First trolley cars to Eldridge Park
1874 - St. Mary's Church opened
1874 - Huge fire in Elmira on Water Street - many buildings burned
1875 - American Girl (a racehorse) died on the track at Eldridge Park
1875 - St. Patrick's Church opened
1876 - Elmira Reformatory opened
1876 - Elmira native Lucius Robinson elected governor of NY
1877 - Graves in Wisner Burying Ground moved to Woodlawn Cemetery. Burying Ground became Wisner Park.
1877 - First telephone in Elmira in Jervis Langdon's office
1877 - Home for the Aged opened on Grand Central Avenue
1878 - Chemung Canal abandoned owing to great railroad service
1878 - First paid fire department and last parade of volunteer firemen
1878 - State Reformatory completed
1879 - Centennial anniversary of Newtown Battle
1881 - Big tornado strikes downtown Elmira
1882 - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western brought service to Elmira
1883 - Electricity is provided in Elmira
1883 - The Elmira Daily Herald
1884 - First Catholic church erected where Sts. Peter and Paul's building is located
1885 - Elmira native David Hill becomes NY governor
1885 - Horseheads renamed "North Elmira."
1886 - Elmira Armory constructed
1887 - Maple Avenue Railroad established
1888 - Arnot-Ogden Hospital opened
1888 - Elmira Advertiser fire
1889 - Chemung and Cowanesque River floods - 13 dead (same day as the famous Johnstown flood)
1889 - the City of Elmira purchased Eldridge Park and lake. (Formerly Wisner Lake) Link for more info
1889 - Elmira City Club opened
1889 - First automobile in Horseheads
1891 - Electric trolleys take over horse trolleys
1892 - Elmira Heights land lottery brought new settlers
1893 - First automobile is seen in Elmira
1895 - Eclipse Bicycle Company opened in Elmira Heights
1895 - Elmira's City Hall erected
1897 - Elmira Country Club opened
1899 - First Steele Memorial Library opened
1900 - King Organ Factory closed
1900 - Elmira, WAter, Light & Railroad formed
1900 - Rorick's Glen park opened
1900 - Glen Route - 90-minute trolley service to Watkins Glen
1901 - Statue of Thomas K. Beecher dedicated in Wisner Park
1902 - Big flood in Elmira. Link for more info
1903 - Joveite factory explosion
1904 - Rorick's Glen theatre burned down
1904 - Installation of an electric system
1904 - Lyceum Theater fire on Lake Street
1904 - Elmira's coldest day to date, January 5 at 30 degrees below zero
1906 - First "hard surface" road from Horseheads to Erin
1906 - Kennedy Valve opened
1908 - St. Joseph's Hospital opened
1909 - Elmira lost its beloved Ross Marvin. He was murdered by Eskimos on the Peary Expedition in the Arctic.
1910 - Mark Twain buried in Woodlawn Cemetery.
1911 - Original Sullivan's Monument collapsed
1912 - Arctic League formed
1912 - Gibson Train Wreck kills 39 (Elmirans were on the train)
1912 - Second Sullivan's Monument dedicated
1913 - Arnot Art Gallery (Museum) opened at bequest of Matthias Arnot
1913 - The Elmira-Lowman highway paved
1913 - Huge downtown fire, Telegram building, Thompson, Connelly, Amusu Theater buildings
1915 - Police shootout - Edward Westervelt killed officers Charles Gradwell and John Finnell
1915 - YWCA formed
1918 - Spanish influenza killed 134 in Chemung County
1918 - Prohibition closed Elmira's 49 saloons (came early in Elmira &ndash the rest of the country went dry in 1919)
1918 - The bobbed hair fad hit Elmira's women
1919 - Panosian's shoe repair store opened on the Southside
1922 - Glen Route trolley suspended
1923 - Concrete road from Elmira to Lowman opened
1924 - Iszard's department store opened
1924 - Southside High School opened
1927 - Brand Park pool opened
1927 - Caton Avenue airport opened
1929 - Mark Twain Hotel opened
1929 &ndash Sullivan Campaign Pageant at the foot of East Hill with a crowd of 75,000 watched
1929 - The Hungerford brothers unveiled their "Rocket Car."
1930 - First national gliding and soaring contest held at Harris Hill
1930 - Gorton Coy sidewalk collapsed - two killed
1930 - Strathmont mansion completed
1931 - Dixie Barbecue opened
1932 - First radio station WESG (now WENY) broadcast
1933 - FBI raid at Briggs' Brewery
1933 - Mammoth molar found while excavating the Sheriff's house on William Street. Today's location - local Historical Society
1933 and 1934 - Erie and Lackawanna Railroad tracks elevated through the city of Elmira
1934 - Elmira boxer Art Sykes knocked out by Joe Louis in the eighth round
1935 - Chemung River Flood - 43 dead and 44 million in damage locally
1935 - Horseheads' cartoonist Eugene Zimmerman "Zim" died
1936 - Big Island, Elmira - mammoth tusk found. "Mislaid." Today's whereabouts unknown.
1936 - Rossi Bowling Lanes opened
1937 - Completion of river dikes in the city to help prevent flooding
1939 - March 11. City buses replaced trolley cars
1939 - Dunn Field opened
1939 - In a citywide vote, Elmirans voted NOT to keep the former Langdon home as a possible Mark Twain museum. The building was razed shortly after.
1940 - Langdon Plaza opened on the site of the former Langdon home.
1940 - Big Flats, NY - Mastodon skeleton found. Now in possession of Painted Post Museum, Painted Post, NY.
1940 - First parking meters in Elmira
1942 - Elmira's highest population 55,700
1943 - Chemung County Airport opened
1944 - Italian prisoners are brought to the "Holding Point" in Horseheads for the rest of the war. German prisoners were (briefly) brought to Van Etten.
1946 - 4.95 inches of rain brought the Great May 28 Flood
1946 - Cappy's Cards and Gifts opened
1946 - Tornado uprooted 1000 trees
1947 - WELM radio's first broadcast
1949 - Elmira Drive-In opened on Route 352
1949 - Tom Sawyer Motel opened on Lake Road
1950 - First television reception in Chemung County from Binghamton's Channel 12
1950 - Elmira's first parking lot opened on the site of the razed Rathbun Hotel
1951 - Chemung Speedrome opened
1951 - Mount Saviour Monastery opened
1952 - Fluoridated water introduced to Elmira
1952 - Westinghouse Electric plant in Horseheads opened
1952 - Four-lane Route 17 opened from Elmira to Lowman
1953 - Jones Court opened
1953 - Chemung County's first television station (WECT Channel 18) went on air and, after a hiatus, came back in 1956 at WSYE
1953 - Horseheads Gas Pipeline exploded
1953 - Shepherd's Food Market opened in Pine City
1954 - Local Remington Rand plant produced its 15 millionth typewriter
1954 - Horseheads Center Street School opened
1954 - Hurricane Hazel brought 90 mph winds recorded at the airport
1955 - Notre Dame High School opened
1955 - Aunt Jemima visited Elmira for 3 days in March
1955 - Cable TV introduced with a $125 installation fee and a $3.50 a month charge
1956 - Red Jacket Motel opened on Route 17
1956 - Loblaw's Super Market opened
1956 - Elmira-Horseheads arterial highway opened
1956 - Mayor Edward Mooers served as Elmira's mayor until 1962
1956 - Escapee from Elmira Reformatory captured on Mt. Zoar
1957 - Elmira City School District consolidated 29 school districts (including Ashland, Baldwin, Southport, and Town of Elmira) and ended the era of one-room schoolhouses
1958 Dedication of Chapel Park in Southport
1959 - Minier's Super Market opened in Big Flats
1959 - Midtown Plaza opened with 15 stores and 200 parking spaces in downtown Elmira
1959 - Chemung County enacted a sales tax
1959 - "Do it yourself" long-distance telephone dialing
1960 - Construction began on the new Elmira Free Academy building on Hoffman Street to replace the old one on Lake Street
1960 - Consolidation of Erie and Lackawanna Railroads
1961 - Grand Central Plaza opened in Horseheads
1961 - New Lake Street bridge opened
1961 - Elmira football hero Ernie Davis became the first African American to win the Heisman Trophy. Link for more info
1961 - Chemung County's 125th Anniversary Parade
1961 - Broadway and Pine City Elementary Schools opened
1962 - New Horseheads Village Hall opened
1963 - Elmira got "Zip Codes."
1963 - Centertown Park-Shop developed with 540 parking spaces
1964 - Elmira celebrated its 100th anniversary as a city. Elmira Free Academy's class of 1965 began at the brand new building on Hoffman Street
1965 - Ann Page (A&P) plant opened in Horseheads
1965 - Church Street became one-way from Madison Avenue to Coleman Avenue
1965 - ElCor opened in Horseheads
1965 - West Elmira Branch Library opened
1966 - Blizzard caused drifts 15 feet high
1967 - Worst airplane crash related to Elmira - Mohawk Airlines with 34 onboard crashed near Blossburg, PA after just leaving the Elmira airport
1967 - "The Mall" opened - later renamed Arnot Mall
1967 - Cash Electric fire on West Water Street
1969 - WENY television opened in the Mark Twain Hotel
1970 - Erie-Lackawanna Railroad discontinued service
1970 - Elmira's first McDonald's opened (North Main Street)
1972 - Remington Rand plant closed
1972 - Tropical Storm Agnes brought Elmira's worst flood to date - June 23 - after 8 inches of rain
1973 - Last link of Route 17 completed between Waverly and Nichols, NY
1974 - New Walnut Street bridge opened (due to 1972 flood)
1975 - New Main Street bridge opened (due to 1972 flood)
1975 - Demolition of all buildings on the riverside of Water Street in downtown Elmira between Lake and Main Streets
1975 - New Fitch's Bridge opened
1976 - Easing of "blue laws" allowed shopping on Sundays
1977 - Clemens Center for the Performing Arts opened
1978 - Arnot Mall added 84 stores
1979 - New Steele Memorial Library opened
1980 - New Southside High School opened
1981 - Summer of Gypsy Moths - ate all our trees
1981 - First Burger King opened on Washington Avenue
1983 - First area supermarket "scanners" used at Tops Market on Lake Street
1984 - First video store (Rent a Flick) opened in Diven Plaza
1984 - First Pizza Hut opened
1984 - Jones Court Shoot-out, 2 parolees and 1 officer died
1986 - Chemung County native Geoff Bodine won the Daytona 500. Link for more info
1988 - Iszard's 30th and last Christmas Parade
1989 - Eldridge Park's carousel horses auctioned in NYC
1989 - Southport Prison opened
1991 - Eldridge Park rollercoaster is torn down
1993 - The Big Blizzard dumped 30 inches of snow
1993 - First Wal-Mart opened in Big Flats
1994 - Chemung County implemented the 911 system
1995 - Kennedy Valve explosion killed one employee
1999 - Wegman's supermarket opened. Thank you, Lord.
1996 - Elmira's Cat Leash Law in effect. Cats must be on leashes outdoors! Like that really worked.
1996 - Lovell's ice cream parlor closed
1997 - Eldridge Park got a new look &ndash flat and level.
1999 - First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton visited Elmira
1999 - Found at a secret location in Chemung County - "The Gilbert Mastodon" - at least one whole skeleton. Now in possession of Cornell University and currently reside at the Paleontological Research Institution, they are being cleaned, examined, and displayed.
1999 - Elmira's Eileen Collins was NASA's first female space shuttle commander
2000 - (Coach) First Arena in Elmira opened. Who let the dogs out?
2001 - Hygeia plant implosion
2003 - Two convicts escaped from the Elmira State Penitentiary and were missing for three days. Captured in Horseheads on top of Mt. Baldy.
2006 - Eldridge Park reopened its Carousel. Thank you, Dr. Lyon.
2007 - Hillary Clinton visited Big Flats
2008 - Repeal of the Cat Leash Law. Meow!
2008 - The American Hotel on West Third Street, built-in 1835, torn down before it could fall down on its own
2008 - The Express film about Ernie Davis opened in October to good reviews
2009 - Pesky ring-billed seagulls converge on downtown. City officials flummoxed
2009 - Newest Wal-Mart opened at Southern Tier Crossing in Big Flats
2010 - Armory Building (1886) razed (it began collapsing in 2006)
2010 - Red Jacket Motel on Route 17 demolished for Interstate 86 expansion
2010 - Hamlin's Music Store closed
2010 - Seagulls "eliminated" from Chemung River island
2010 - "Naked Urn" of Eldridge Park caused embarrassment to some
2010 - 36-hour manhunt for a parolee who stole a car focused on the Eastside and Southside - apprehended near Dunn Field
2010 - Mrs. Walsh's Saloon demolished - more recently known as Matt&rsquos Erie House. Only 3 out of 92 original buildings left now on Railroad Avenue.
2010 - Dr. Lyon resigned from Eldridge Park Preservation Society. Thank you for your work, Dr. Lyon
2011 - April 28 EF2 Tornado in Erin, NY near and along Route 223
2011 - Old Anchorage building was torn down after a big fire. The historic building at 955 College Avenue. Mrs. Bullock&rsquos home for wayward girls. Although advertised as a &ldquorehabilitation&rdquo facility with educational benefits, it frequently had the opposite effect. Seen by many young women as a prison - with many escapes and tragedies on its property.
2011 - August 23 - Chemung County "moved" during the 5.8 East Coast earthquake in Virginia
2011 - The two rival high school football teams were abruptly combined into one "The Elmira Express," ending the annual Erie Bell game.
2012 - Possible new hotel project at the foot of East Church Street (false alarm). And new motels coming to Big Flats
2012 - Seagulls again &ldquoeliminated&rdquo from their island in the Chemung River
2012 - Cracker Barrel opened in Horseheads. Thank you.
2012 - Chemung County foreclosed on the First Arena building. Jackals to stay for the time being.
2012 - Runway extension at Elmira-Corning Regional Airport on Runway 6-24 to 8,000 feet in length.
2012 - Elmiran Molly Huddle ran in the 2012 Olympics in London, 5000-meter, track and field.
2012 - July 26 - Tornado struck Elmira - EF-1. Luckily, Elmira struck back.
2012 - Lovell's Ice Cream Parlor was razed.
2013 - Peter Biggs' soap factory corner of East Fifth and Madison, razed due to 2012's tornado.
2013 - The former Junior Achievement building on Railroad Avenue was razed - leaving only 2 of the original 92 buildings on the street.
2013 - The Northside Pudgie's Pizza restaurant was razed.
2013 - Eldridge Park received new landscaping
2013 - New trees planted in Brand Park to replace the ones destroyed by last year's tornado.
2013 - 9/16 - All of Route 17 through Chemung County became 1-86
2014 - Former (first) Walmart demolished to make way for a new building.
2014 - Our beloved Rosenbaum's and Marvin's buildings were demolished.
2015 - Mark Twain plaque (from a gravestone in Woodlawn Cemetery) stolen around New Year's Day, recovered in February.
2015 - New historic district (Clinton-Columbia) added
2015 - Our beloved Harold's building was demolished
2015 - Central Hots moved to its newest location on College Avenue.
2016 - American Girl statue is back on view at Eldridge Park
2016 - Opening of the John W. Jones Museum
2016 - Elmiran Molly Huddle competed in the Olympics in Rio De Janiero, 10,000-meter track and field.
2016 - Popeye's opened in Big Flats
2016 - Development of the strategic plan of Elmira
2016 - Nativity fire in Wisner Park
2016 - New historic district added Main & Water
2017 - Work began on rejuvenating Clemens Square
2017 - Who let the dogs out? Elmira lost its beloved Jackals hockey team.
2017 - Elmira High School was deemed toxic.
2018 - Work started on the new roundabout at Third, Main, & Park Place.
2018 - Our beloved Cappy's was razed.
2018 - New construction began at former Rosenbaum's/Harold's location, also at the Miller Building on South Main Street, and the former Jones Court, much to the chagrin of naysayers.
2018 - We have a new hockey team, the Elmira Enforcers.
2018 - Tops Market closed on South Main Street
2018 - Our beloved Horigan's restaurant closed.
2019 - Work begins in earnest for our roundabout.
2019 - Libertad opens in the former Jones Court
2019 - 100 West Water apartment complex opens with full occupancy.
2019 - Our roundabout finally opened at Third, Main, and Park Place.
2020 - Coronavirus COVID19 takes over the world. Everything "on hold" in Elmira. Schools, churches, businesses closed.
2020 - First corona death in Chemung County. April 6, 2020
2020 - LECOM Lake Erie College of Medicine opens in Elmira.
2020 - Work continues to beautify Elmira, Walnut Street Bridge reopens, West Water Street to partly become a boulevard.
Like we said at the top of this page, you may use this timeline if you GIVE CREDIT to this website.
An Alamo Visit
Stephen L. Hardin is a history professor at The Victoria College in Victoria, Texas. Professor Hardin has served as a historical advisor for television and film productions on Texas history. Here, he answers questions about what it's like to visit the Alamo.
On March 6, 1836, nearly 1800 soldiers in the Mexican army of Antonio López de Santa Anna attacked the Alamo after a 13-day siege. Fewer than 200 men stood inside to defend the fort, accompanied by a small number of wives, children, and slaves. Miraculously, at least fourteen people survived, and a few would later provide chilling eyewitness accounts of what happened.
The Navarro Family
The Navarro family was well known in Texas even before José Antonio Navarro played a key role in the Texas revolution. Learn about members of this socially and politically prominent San Antonio family.