Ted Castle

Ted Castle was born in 1907. He worked as a journalist who worked for the Daily Mirror before being recruited by Stefan Lorant and Tom Hopkinson to join the Picture Post in 1938.

Castle met Barbara Castle during the Second World War. She later recalled: "I did not take much to him at first sight: tall, dapper, with a neat moustache, he looked a bit like David Niven, and I suspected him of being just a slick journalist. I gradually changed my mind." The couple were married in 1944.

In 1950 Tom Hopkinson sent James Cameron and Bert Hardy to report on the Korean War. While in Korea the two men produced three illustrated stories for Picture Post. This included the landing of General Douglas MacArthur and his troops at Inchon. Cameron also wrote a piece about the way that the South Koreans were treating their political prisoners. Edward G. Hulton considered the article to be "communist propaganda" and Hopkinson was forced to resign. Castle took over as editor but six months later he was sacked by Edward G. Hulton.

In 1973 Castle had open-heart surgery. He recovered and the following year was made a life peer and was an active member of the House of Lords.

Ted Castle died on 26th December 1979.

I did not take much to him at first sight: tall, dapper, with a neat moustache, he looked a bit like David Niven, and I suspected him of being just a slick journalist. I gradually changed my mind. His marriage had broken up and he was waiting for his decree absolute, so he had a lot of time to spare for me. There then ensued one of the most unusual courtships in Cupid's history. He would meet me outside the Fish Division and listen with all the appearance of enthralled interest while I regaled him with stories about dehydrated mullet and fish hooks for Iceland, to say nothing of the mysteries of snoek. As a younger man (he was then in his early thirties), he had been very active in NUJ politics, organizing everything from press balls to strikes, and had been recognized as a bit of a lad, but I soon found that he was a serious socialist.

Ted Castle - History

The O'Maoilriains, or anglicised Mulryans, are directly descended from Fergus, ninth in descent from Cathair Mor and are said to have settled in the 13th century in the rich pasturelands of the Golden Vale bordering Tipperary and Limerick.

The O'Maoilriains, who were chiefs of Owney, settled in that territory which is now known as the Baronies of Owney, County Tipperary and Owney-beg in the east of County Limerick and later moved in to the Barony of Kilnamanagh, County Tipperary, where they became very numerous and powerful. The prefix "Maol" or "Mul", which signifies "bald", and is described by some as meaning "Follower of" always referred to the O'Mulryans of Owney but gradually became obsolete, and was developed by Dr. Petty when he completed the Civil and Down Survey's for the Cromwellian Government. Most of the buildings constructed by the Ryans (O'Mulryans) when they arrived in the Owney territory of Munster were demolished prior to, or during the 17th century when their properties were confiscated by Cromwellian forces.

One of the Castles destroyed in the mid-15th century by the Earl of Ormond was Cragg Castle in County Tipperary, six miles south east of Killaloe. Situated on rocky, elevated ground overlooking the River Shannon, this stronghold was built here because of its strategic location. One mile east of Cragg, in a valley, is the ancient burial ground of this branch of the family. Passing through the double style in this cemetery, with its interesting coffin rest (possibly 18th century or earlier) one can see many Ryan graves, and without undue difficulty, read inscriptions going back to the Great Famine era of the mid-19th century.

Other Castles that were destroyed by the Earl of Ormond in the 15th century were Abingdon, County Limerick, and nearby Owney Abbey. A number of Ryans are buried in an ancient, but still used, graveyard surrounding the site of the ruined Abbey, and at a slightly lower level, stand the 20 ft. high remains of a square tower. Tradition suggests that this building was a vicar's choral or other part of the old Abbey. At Newport, County Tipperary, six miles north of Abingdon, is located one of the best-preserved buildings associated with the Ryan clan. The delightful Ballymackeogh House was, for centuries, the home of a branch of the family that originated in the Nenagh (County Tipperary) area. A Mr. Hurley who bought it in 1972 now privately owns it. An ancient church and burial ground for this and other branches of the family down through the years are located beside the long driveway leading to the House.

The ruins of Cully Castle are situated less than three miles from Newport, amongst the foothills of the Slieve Felim Mountains. Confiscated from Teige Ryan by Oliver Cromwell's forces in 1642, this large fortress with rounded corners was granted to a Hardress Waller who renamed it Castle Waller. Once a massive structure with at least two small circular flanking towers, it is now an ivy-clad ruin showing traces of both periods of ownership, including a vast two acres of orchards encircled by high walls. An interesting thing about Castle Waller is that although the ruins of the Castle still stand, we see attached to the one side a more modern cottage residence which is still occupied. Another ruined castle which at one times belonged to the Ryan Family and also in this general vicinity is Castle Craig. It is situated on a dairy farm, but the property is no longer owned by a Ryan. In this area there are also the sites of at least two more ex-Ryan castles, but virtually all trace of them has now been obliterated.

Across the Shannon River in County Clare, the beautiful Cathedral erected by King Donal Mor O'Brien of Thomond at Killaloe was granted to a member of the Ryan family when the monasteries in Ireland were destroyed by King Henry VIII in the 16th century. Historical documents show that William Ryane of Tipperary, Gent, "in consideration of the sum of £6. 13s. 4d. was given it to hold forever on the payment of a twentieth part of a Knight's fee and a rent of four pence." Killaloe Cathedral is still in regular use, as the Church of Ireland's main church in the diocese of that name. Another building that became the property of the Ryans in King Henry VIII's time was the old Augustine Priory at Tipperary Town. This was granted to a William Ryan for £20. A substantial Ryan castle is reputed to have existed at Sologhead, five miles north west of Tipperary Town. Situated in the midst of some of the best land in the Golden Vale, and half-way between the Tipperary hills and the county's central range, this site was one of great importance through the centuries.

Back in the 11th century, the great King Brian Boru had a successful skirmish with the invading Danes at Sologhead. A significant ambush also took place there in the Irish War of Independence earlier in the 20th. century. Although the Castle and the nearby Abbey are no longer visible, grave-diggers often discover the latter's (Abbey's) ancient walls. A fine new church is now located on the site. Ballyryan "the town of the Ryans" - is located near Sologhead and now consists of only a few houses. One such, of note, is a farming property "Ballyryan House" situates several kilometers outside the town and still owned and operated by a Ryan which offers B&B accommodation to visitors.

The Ryans have left their mark not only in the traditional Owney territories, but also all over mid and north Tipperary and East Limerick where they are to be found in almost every parish today. For instance, Holycross Abbey, nine miles north of Cashel in County Tipperary, had an Abbot in 1455 named Matthew O'Mulryan. One of King Donal Mor O'Brien's great buildings, Holycross, was recently extensively restored. Inch House, the home of a branch known by that name is only seven miles from Holycross and is quite close to another prominent Ryan district, Borrisoleigh, where a branch of the family owned 906 acres of land in the 17th. century. Like the powerful Tyrone branch of the family - just south of Nenagh, County Tipperary - many of the Ryans have lived in these areas for centuries but, no doubt, originated from within the Owney territory. Cathair Mor, the Founder of the Clan, is reputed to have been herded across the south of Ireland between the two main territories of the family, Idrone and Owney.

The Ryan surname (and its variant forms) is eight most numerous in whole of Ireland. There are an estimated 28,000 bearers name resident Ireland at present time. However, we must not forget that possibly ten times total Ryans living outside shores - two Americas, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, England, Europe, African continent and, to a lesser extent, Asia and rest world.



Being a Ryan, when one starts to think of Ireland, one’s mind naturally turns towards Tipperary, situated in the South/West of Ireland in the Province of Munster. Although the Ryan Family is represented in almost every County and city in Ireland, and way back in the dim and distant past the Ryans were more prevalent in the Province of Leinster, the Ryans many centuries ago appeared in the Province of Munster and quickly established themselves along the border between Limerick and Tipperary where they rapidly became the Family of influence and power in the Baronies of Owney and Owneybeg. The Family influence grew rapidly as did their numbers until the Ryans were so numerous in Tipperary that it became a trite saying that "One could hardly throw a stone down a street in Tipperary without hitting a Ryan". And so it became natural to associate Tipperary County with the Ryans and the Ryans with Tipperary County.

It seems natural although in truth the Ryan family did not really originate here and are associated with other areas and Counties in Ireland. Nevertheless it is true to say that Tipperary is considered the home of the Ryans. So any Ryan when visiting Ireland most naturally finds his or her way to Tipperary, just as we did when we went to Ireland in 1995. Tipperary is probably best known, world wide, from the World War 1 Song “It’s a Long Way to Tipperary” which, in fact, was written by an Englishman who had never even seen Ireland, let alone Tipperary, and it became a popular song on both sides of the trenches. The song is still popular to this very day, but the ironically amusing about the "Long Way" thing is that, when we arrived in Tipperary in 1955, it was not long before we were confronted with a roadside sign which, with typical Irish humour, said “SEE, IT’S NOT THAT FAR AFTER ALL”.

Tipperary derives its name from –Tiobraid Arainn (The well of Aran) - a well situated just off the present Main Street of Tipperary Town, which is, or rather was, (the well I mean) considered sacred, and at which King Brian Boru is reputed to have washed his wounds after a battle. However, in common with many other Irish towns Tipperary Town traces its origins to the Normans, who invaded Ireland, and around the end of the 12th. century established a settlement to the north-west in the vicinity of the present town. The motte and bailey built by the Normans then, can still be seen today.

Note: A motte and bailey are ancient forms of structures and earthworks, commonly used during this era.

Main Street, Tipperary as we saw it in 1995

However, the future King John of England later built a castle in Tipperary, and every trace of this structure has since been obliterated. Later during the Cromwellian suppression of Ireland, all land in Tipperary was confiscated to the British Crown Irish landowners were deprived of their ownership and the town became the property of a wealthy English gentleman and merchant by the name of Erasmus Smith

The area between Limerick, in County Limerick Nenagh, Thurles, and Tipperary Town in Tipperary is considered the cradle of the modern Ryan Family. Known collectively as the Slieve Felim area as it contains the Slieve Felim Mountains. An area on this North/Western border with Limerick was a district known as Owney and Owney Beg which gave its name to the Ryan Family which was then known as the Owney Ryans or the Ryans of Owney There a number of places and areas in Tipperary which are intimately associated with the Ryan family. Mostly these are concentrated in the North of the County in the region around the Slieve Felim Mountains, and names like Newport, Nenagh, Cashel, - the Rock of Cashel being famous, of course, for its association with St. Patrick - Clonmel, Thurles and others bring a gleam to the eye of every Ryan that visits Tipperary. Within this area around Newport there are the ruined remains of no less that four Ryan Castles. And while visiting Ireland I was fortunate enough to visit two of these ruins. These were the Castle Craig and Cully Castle, this last named having been confiscated by Cromwell, and awarded to one of his financial backers, an Englishman named Waller, who subsequently renamed it Castle Waller.

Castle Waller formerly Cully Castle

The ruins of a Ryan Castle (Cully Castle) situated in Northern Tipperary. The ruins are completely covered in ivy, but note the more modern cottage built on to the ruins, which was still occupied. The Castle was confiscated from the Ryan Family by Oliver Cromwell, and presented to one of his supporters, Col. Waller who renamed it as "Castle Waller". In the picture the ruins are being inspected by Ted Ryan (nearest to building) and his brother Bernie Ryan during a visit to Ireland in 1995.

This Castle situated in the Sleive Felim Mountains of Northern Tipperary was confiscated by Cromwell from the Ryan Family and presented to a supporter Col Waller, who renamed it "Castle Waller". You will note from the picture that all the ruins of the castle are overgrown and covered with ivy, but interestingly a somewhat more recent cottage has been attached to the ruins and is still occupied. The ruins are being inspected by Ted Ryan (Aust) - nearest to ruins- and his brother Bernie Ryan during a trip to Ireland during 1995.

It is interesting to note that even today the name Ryan is prevalent throughout Tipperary and it is not uncommon to see the name proudly displayed on business houses and Hotels, throughout the County. Even when searching for the Ryan Castles in 1995 we had recourse to Ryan’s Hotel in Newport for directions, were welcomed with great Ryan cordiality and warmth, and quickly put on the right track On another occasion while seeking proof of our family roots we visited a Ryan Pub in Thurles and were directed to Ned Ryan, or "Ned the Undertaker" as he was known, who proved a mine of information and assured us that we probably belonged to the Ryan Family known by the nickname of "Ryan Castle". It is a shame that we have not yet been able to corroborate this assumption.

There are many more towns and areas in Tipperary which prove a natural enticement for the tourist, such as Cashel, Holy Cross, Nenagh, Thurles, Clonmel to name but a few. However, for myself, my brother and our wives, who made the trip to Tipperary in 1995 there are several which stand high in our memory, and of these the most remembered is the Glen of Aherlow. The Glen stretches for some 15 miles from Bansha in the East to Galbally in the West a most picturesque village at the mouth of the Glen and only 9 miles from Tipperary Town. The Glen is nestled between the Slieve na Muck hills to the North, and the Galtee Mountains to the South, and provided a haven of refuge for the Raparees –- the Irishmen who had been dispossessed of their lands and became outlaws during this troubled periods of Irish History -– the most famous and well known of these being Edmund RYAN or “Eamonn an Chnoic” or “Ned of the Hills” The area is justly famous for its outstanding scenery and beauty and a marvellous view of the Glen can be enjoyed from the statue of “Christ the King” on the Coach road.

When we visited Ireland the Clan Ryan treated us to a magnificent banquet masterminded and controlled by Mr, John Bradshaw of Tipperary Town, at the Aherlow House which is situated overlooking the Glen not far from the Statue. Here we were treated right royally by the Clan Ryan, Tipperary, and experienced a memorable time. Only a matter of several miles to the west of Tipperary town, any Ryan visiting Tipperary, and interested will find a small village called Ballyryan, may spend a night at a farming property which prides itself on its “B&B” (bed and breakfast) facilities, and is run by the original family of Ryans who still farm the property.

All things considered Tipperary is a well worth destination for any person fortunate enough to make the journey, and particularly so if he/she happen to have Ryan connections. Anyone contemplating a visit would be well advised to contact Mr. John Bradshaw, at the Clann na hEireann Office at 45 West Main Street, Tipperary Town, who will undoubtedly give you the best advice and guidance possible. If you do just tell John that Ted Ryan from Gympie, Queensland sent you.

You could also look up Willie Ryan mine host of the "Nellie O'Brien" pub in Main Street, Tipperary Town who just after our visit to Tipperary was elected as Chieftain of the Clan Ryan Tipperary, or Con Ryan who lives on the Clonmel Road, only a short walk from the Main Street of Tipperary and you could say the same thing to them.

Here I must add a post script as I have recently been advised that Willie Ryan has now relinquished the "Nellie O'Brien" and the best way to contact him would be through John Bradshaw. To the best of my knowledge Con Ryan and his wife are still residing on Clonmel Road.

Dr. Ted Castele TV's first News Doctor made over a billion house calls

Robert Young wasn't a doctor - he just played one (Marcus Welby) on TV. Theodore J. Castele on the other hand, not only appeared as a Doctor on television - he really is one. Here is his story.

Ted was born in the hills of Western Pennsylvania, on February 1, 1928. It was in his home town of New Castle that this only child, was raised and went to High School.

As a child, Ted was very active in the Boy Scouts, earning the Eagle Scout Award, the highest honor given in the Scouts. In High School, he was part of a radio club - radio not being as common as it is today. Most of the time he was growing up, New Castle did not have their own station. Ted and the other club members met, wrote and got to go on the air "maybe twice, if that."

Both of Ted's parents were born in this country. His mother was the daughter of Polish immigrants and grew up in West Virginia. His father was the son of Italian immigrants, and he grew up in Pennsylvania. Both of his parents were accountants. "I had simply wonderful parents. Just wonderful." His father was a Marine, and the war was on while Ted was growing up. His mother was in the Marine Auxiliary and very active in the Red Cross.

Dr. Ted Castele and his mother

In January 1946, he went into the Navy, although he had actually enlisted prior to that and tried to go in earlier. Rules were rules and he had to wait for his 18th birthday. Ted's father was a Marine, but since most of Ted's class was joining the Navy, he decided to do so as well. "We were gonna fight the bad guys"

Ted Castele (right) in Navy with shipmate

Although the war was technically still on when Ted went in, the "fighting part was over" so Ted spent the next two years in what was known as "The Kid Brother Navy".

He was mainly stationed in Naval Academies after completing his boot camp in Williamsburg, Virginia. He was stationed at the Great Lakes Naval Academy in Illinois and then in Corpus Christi, Texas. His final transfer, before being discharged from Norfolk was a trip to Trinidad in the British West Indies.

Ted Castele in college

Most of his work was in the various electronic schools. His rank was Aviation Electronics Tech 2nd Class.

When he got out of the Navy, Ted enrolled in Western Reserve University, in Cleveland. His best friend, who had not been able to go into the service, had gone to John Carroll and recommended both Cleveland and Western Reserve to Ted.

College man Ted Castele with roomates

Western Reserve had the programs he wanted so it was an easy decision for him. He graduated in 1951 from Adelbert College of Western Reserve University with a Bachelor of Science degree.

On October 20 of that same year, Ted married Jean Willse of Lakewood. Ted was a member of the very prestigious Phi Gamma Delta and he met Jean at a Fraternity Party.

Ted Castele and Jean Willse wedding in 1951

Fresh out of school and newly married, Ted went to work for a subsidiary of Union Carbide, The KMET Company and then went back to school to continue his studies.

After 2 years at KMET he moved on to what he called "The greatest company in the world", the Victoreen Instrument Company. The company made Geiger counters for the government to use in the South Pacific for atomic testing after WWII.

The company was able to keep him well employed all through medical school. He was given the job because of his training at Western Reserve, where he actually learned how to work Geiger counters.

Ted knew early on that he wanted to go to Medical School and also had a keen interest in physics and chemistry.

Radiology was the perfect fit for him, and it was there he focused his attention. He did his internship and residency at University Hospital and also received a Fellowship in Nuclear Radiology at University Hospital. "Nuclear Radiology is the use of radioactive substances to diagnose and treat".

Jean and Doctor Ted Castele

While he was in med school, Ted and Jean lived in Lakewood and then Cleveland. In 1963 they built their current home in Fairview Park.

Ted and Jean have seven children Bob (also a Doctor), Ann Marie (principal of a grade school in Alaska), Dick (a CPA), Mary Kay (works in communications), Tom (chief of staff at a New York law firm), Dan (an engineer) and John (an attorney).

Dr. Ted Castele family in 1974

They also have eighteen grandchildren: 7 girls and 11 boys.

"The most important thing I want to be thought of as is a good husband, father, grandfather, godfather and family man - that's the most important thing of all. Nothing is more important than my family."

Ted and Jean Castele with baby Bobby at Christmas

Dr Ted carves the turkey

Dr. Ted was now in practice and involved with the Cleveland Academy of Medicine. The academy had been getting some bad press as the result of malpractice suits and they were interested in fixing their public image and doing something positive. They thought that maybe they could get a Doctor to go on television and help "clean up the image with a personal touch."

Bob Lang from the Academy called the three stations broadcasting in Cleveland at the time. Two of the stations had no interest, but WEWS, Channel 5 thought it was a great opportunity and jumped on the chance.

The WEWS Director wanted to pick the person to do the spot, but Lang wanted to use a doctor of their choosing. So WEWS gave the Academy the opportunity to send someone for an interview. The Academy chose to send Dr. Ted.

"I was very hesitant. This was not something I had ever done before, but I went ahead and auditioned." He had to make a few demo tapes to be approved by ABC as well as a psychiatrist in Iowa.

Dr. Ted was offered the job, which he accepted. "I found out many years later, no one else auditioned." He kept that job for almost 25 years and "I loved every minute of it." It is this longevity that leads to his claim of over a billion house calls.

Every night the Channel 5 crew would come to his house to do the 11:00 news - live. They knew exactly where to put the trucks and aim the signals. "They had to hit the Terminal Tower in a straight, uninterrupted line, to get the signal through."

It started out as a once a week feature, but almost immediately turned into every other day and soon after that it became daily. At the end, they were shooting 10 times a week.

Dr. Ted and the station jointly picked the topics, although he remembers a lesson he learned when preparing for his second show. For some reason, Dr. Ted has always been fascinated with leprosy (Hansen's Disease), going so far as to visit the Colony in Hawaii. Naturally, when he was asked what he wanted his second show to be about he thought this would be a great topic. The station gently suggested, "Let's talk about the common cold".

Dr. Ted was the first "TV news doctor" in the entire country.

Dr. Ted Castele giving the day's Pollen Count

For 30 years from August 15 to September 30, he gave the pollen count daily. He played Santa Claus in the Channel 5 helicopter which landed at the heliport on Lutheran Hospitals Roof

Dr. Ted Castele in News Chopper 5

He has high regard for the people he worked with at Channel 5 including on-air personalities and crew. "They were all so nice and so professional and very accommodating." He was able to use his family and friends and even his late dog in the spots.

As he thinks back on some of the people he worked with he remembers both Fred Griffith and Ted Henry as "great mentors. They helped me a lot in so many different ways."

Dr. Ted Castele on set with Wilma Smith

Wilma Smith started shortly after Dr. Ted. He cannot say enough about her, describing her as "lovely, sweet, wonderful, joyful, cheerful, friendly and a joy to work with."

Dorothy Fuldheim was also a co-worker of Dr. Ted's. He remembers the first time he was going to meet her and how he "was scared of her that first time." He got some very good advice Dorothy loved to be flattered.

He was told that if he commented on her appearance and fawned over her in their first meeting, it would help him work with her. So he tried it - and it worked. She told him, on the air, that he "must be a joy to live with" a comment that left his family watching from home laughing.

He also remembers her trademark of wagging her finger at the television. Judd Hambrick, another Dr. Ted favorite, also had a signature move. "He would lean back in his chair and then lunge forward. Always got everybody's attention. It was classic."

He loved Jenny Crimm who came a little later and says Joel Rose played his part as a curmudgeon very well. "That was his role and he knew how to do it."

He thinks that the "ultimate professional, very solid anchor and a great guy" was Roy Weisinger who left in 1998 when he was replaced by Adam Shapiro.

A year later, in 1999, Dr. Ted "retired" although he is active in hundreds of things today.

Dr. Ted Castele in his backyard in 2008

From 1982 to 1997, he also owned his own company, "Medical Consultants Imaging Co." a mobile CAT scan, MRI, nuclear medicine and ultrasound facility.

He does not feel the health message is really that different today than it was when he first started. "Now there are better treatments, new and better procedures, but the fundamentals are the same."

He would love to see a regular segment with a doctor on the air again, instead of just a health reporter. He feels that as talented as a reporter may be, they can only read the script on health issues where a doctor can identify with the matter and use his or her expertise to educate and inform.

Dr. Ted Castele in his home office in 2008

Dr. Ted spent the majority of his professional career at Lutheran Hospital with some time at St. John Westshore and St. Vincent Charity Hospital. In addition to his home, many of the channel 5 segments were shot from his office at Lutheran. The office had permanent lights installed to make the live shots easier.

Since his so-called retirement, he has opened a medical office at Case Western Reserve University. He was the chair of a $300 million fund raising campaign for the School of Medicine - a goal he reached in ten short years. He also chaired many other committees and activities at the school and beyond.

He has a tremendous amount of respect for the schools Dean - Pam Davis and the University President Barbara Snyder. "I am certain they can carry us forward for the greater good of the school."

Dr. Ted has three major areas of activities on which he now concentrates his "free time". The first is his office at CWRU. He has been a Board member or a Board Member Emeritus since the very early 1980's as well as a fund raiser for the entire university.

Second is his work at Fairview General Hospital and Lutheran Hospital's Community West Foundation. Both hospitals are now affiliated with Cleveland Clinic and he has been working with them for approximately seven years.

Dr. Ted and Jean Castele family Christmas 2007

His third area of concentration is the Diocese of Cleveland where Dr. Ted, a devout Roman Catholic is a member of the Foundation Board of Trustees.

He is active in many boards and either retired or honorary board member of others, including National History Museum, Boy Scouts and Providence House. When he is asked, as he so often is, why he devotes so much time to boards and committees he simply responds "Ask God."

He says, "I was brought up with the concept that you do everything that you can, that's reasonable, for your community and others." Even back in his Boy Scout Days he remembers directing traffic at the cemetery on Memorial Day because "Somebody needs to do it. Why shouldn't it be me?"

He and his wife have enjoyed traveling, and when she recuperates from the fractures she is now suffering from they will no doubtedly do more. The especially enjoy vacations with their family.

Jean and Ted Castele and 3 of their kids
at the Grand Canyon

Although he enjoys golf, he is quick to add, "Jean is a better golfer than I ever was." They also love to swim, but once again, he admits "The last we swam laps and kept time she [Jean] beat me."

His work out schedule today is "I work hard and stay active. Not quite as active as I used to be, but I'm always on the go."

He went through stages of "retirement acceptance." First came denial. Then semi-retirement. Then full retirement. Then back to semi-retirement. The shortest lived of all was full retirement. "I can't even say the words." At his most active peak, he easily worked eighty hours a week. For him, semi-retirement means forty.

Jean and Dr. Ted Castele in 2008

Dr. Ted probably could have lived anywhere in the country, but chose to stay in Cleveland. "Cleveland has been a wonderful city to get around in. The cultural offerings are amazing. In any given day, you may have access to monster trucks or baseball or the art museum. And the people are wonderful."

He is a little concerned about the economic struggle Cleveland is currently experiencing but "for all those that can ride it out and survive - Cleveland will make a comeback and be better than ever." He sites the Canadian water treaty as a positive step toward Cleveland's resurgence and thinks of Cleveland not so much as the North Coast but the Fresh Water Coast.

Dr. Ted is a very religious person. He believes strongly in family values and has an amazing work ethic. "Whenever possible people need to pull themselves up by their bootstraps, acknowledging of course, that not everyone is able to - not everyone has the ability." He says that is when we need to step in and help our neighbors.

It would take forever to list all of his memberships, awards and honor. Ranging from the Humility of Mary to The National Institute of Health to Ignatius High school to the Equestrian Knights of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem - and hundreds in between - He has been honored and thanked by many.

The American Medical Association gave him the Benjamin Rush Award for community service, the very highest award they have. Cleveland Clinic honored him with the Pillar of Medicine Award and he has earned the Medaille Shield from St. Joseph Academy for support and encouragement.

He is a founding board member of the Center for Dialysis Care and a Hall of Fame member of the Northeast Ohio Italian American Medical Association. He earned the Archbishop Hoban Award, The Lamplighter Award and The Juno Award.

Case Western Reserve has even created the Dr. Ted Castele Award for civic professionals, which is given out yearly. He was surprised at the first ceremony when he took the stage with his prepared speech introducing the award recipient to learn that he, in fact, was the first recipient of the award.

He humbly acknowledges that many of the awards he has won jointly with his wife or at the very least could not have accomplished what he has without her support.

Ted and Jean Castele on the Love Boat

When the line is drawn and the good guys go to one side and the bad guys to the other, there is no doubt which side of the line Dr. Ted is on. He has chosen to take his natural intelligence and use it in a way beneficial to many people. He shares his talents, his time and his expertise. He is a humble man, who has much to boast about.

He thinks of himself as a servant of God and God's people and never forgets the responsibility that brings with it. He not only does God's work - he does it with a smile on his face and a happy heart.

Dr. Ted Castele not only played a good person on television - he really is one.

Life at Rhino

In 1981, Rhino Foods began as a small ice cream shop, Chessy’s Frozen Custard. The founders, Ted and Anne Castle, continue to own and operate the business out of Burlington, Vermont, employing over 130 people.

From the beginning, Ted’s desire to own a company that develops its employees, has a positive impact on the community, and shares innovative workplace practices has set the course of our growth and our culture. Over time this evolved into our Purpose and Principles:

Purpose: To impact the manner in which business is done.

Community Principle: We commit time, energy, and financial resources to improve social and environmental conditions. Our actions are intended to create a ripple effect of caring and involvement that influence first ourselves and then others.

Customer/Supplier Principle: We continually strive to delight our customers and partner with our suppliers, building strong relationships that are aligned with each other’s long-term success.

Employee Principle: We establish relationships with our employees and their families founded upon a climate of mutual trust and respect within an environment for listening and personal expression. We provide a vehicle for our people to develop and achieve their personal and professional aspirations.

Finance Principle: We emphasize long-term financial health in order to invest in our employees, customers, and community.

These aren’t just words on a wall these are the foundation of our living culture. You’ll often hear someone ask in a meeting, “Is this the right thing to do?” We all know this is shorthand for, “Is this the right thing for to do for us, our customers, our suppliers and our community?”

The Little-Known Story of How The Shawshank Redemption Became One of the Most Beloved Films of All Time

The odds of a successful jailbreak are never good. On a night in April 2012, they were all but impossible for Chen Guangcheng: one blind Chinese dissident against the 100 guards surrounding his home and village in Shandong province. Political activism against the Chinese government had earned Chen six years of what he called “brutal” detainment—translation: regular beatings—first in prison and later under house arrest. And so, to escape, the 40-year-old Chen waited for a moonless sky, and then scaled the government-built wall around his house, relying on his other senses to guide him across rivers and roads. Three hundred miles later—at one point he was reduced to crawling after breaking bones in his foot—the fugitive reached his sanctuary: the American Embassy in Beijing.

The story of the blind man eluding a domestic-security apparatus with an annual budget of $111 billion “electrified China’s rights activists,” according to The New York Times. The embarrassed country’s Internet police tried to squelch the story by censoring micro-blogs, an information-sharing platform in China similar to the government-banned Twitter. Blocked search terms included “blind person,” “embassy,” and “Shawshank.”

Twenty years ago this week, The Shawshank Redemption hit multiplexes. It’s a period prison drama with stately, old-fashioned rhythms, starring Tim Robbins as Andy Dufresne, wrongfully convicted of killing his wife, her lover and serving two life terms, and Morgan Freeman as fellow lifer “Red” Redding, who narrates the film. But the 90s were an era of booyah action movies starring the likes of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Bruce Willis. In Shawshank, the story of a decades-long quest for redemption and freedom, the closest things to action sequences involve fighting off buggery or defiantly blasting a Mozart duettino. Reviews were mostly favorable, but the film bombed, failing to earn even $1 million on its opening weekend and eventually eking out $16 million (about $25 million today) at the American box office during its initial release, not nearly enough—and even less so after marketing costs and exhibitors’ cuts—to recoup its $25 million budget.

That was then. Today The Shawshank Redemption tops the IMDb’s Top 250 cinema-favorites list with more than a million votes, having passed the previous champ, The Godfather, in 2008.* (While The Godfather—trailing by 300,000 votes—has maintained its runner-up position, Citizen Kane, the perennial greatest movie ever in critics’ polls, whispers “Rosebud” from No. 66.) Readers of the British movie magazine Empire voted The Shawshank Redemption No. 4 in a 2008 list of “the 500 Greatest Films of All Time,” and in 2011 the film won a BBC Radio favorite-film poll.

Morgan Freeman relies on less empirical evidence. “About everywhere you go, people say, ‘The Shawshank Redemption—greatest movie I ever saw,’ ” he told me. “Just comes out of them.” Not that he’s a disinterested observer, but Tim Robbins backs his co-star: “I swear to God, all over the world—all over the world—wherever I go, there are people who say, ‘That movie changed my life.’ ” Even the world’s most famous former prisoner connected with the movie, according to Robbins: “When I met [Nelson Mandela], he talked about loving Shawshank.

How did a period prison film running 142 minutes—a life sentence for most audiences—become a global phenomenon capable of rankling a world superpower and stirring a Nobel Peace Prize winner? To borrow a quote from Shawshank, “Geology is the study of pressure and time. That’s all it takes, really. Pressure and time.”

Writer-director Frank Darabont now owns a Spanish villa in Los Angeles’s Los Feliz district—Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie also call the neighborhood home—which serves solely as his bustling production office. But in the 1980s, before his Oscar nominations and his stints as creator and executive producer of the AMC series The Walking Dead and the TNT series Mob City, Darabont was just another broke Hollywood hanger-on imagining his name on the back of a director’s chair. “I had no career whatsoever. I was nailing sets together on low-budget films to keep body and soul together,” he says. But Darabont, a “rabid and devoted” Stephen King fan, nursed a chimera: turning one of the writer’s stories into a film.

Not many novelists have seen their work sail past as many movie-studio gatekeepers as King, starting with 1976’s blood-soaked hit Carrie. The author famously hated director Stanley Kubrick’s adaptation of his novel The Shining—King felt actor Shelley Duvall’s Wendy was “one of the most misogynistic characters ever put on film”—but he didn’t punish other filmmakers. Instead, King maintains a policy of granting newbie directors in need of a calling card the rights to his short stories for one dollar. In 1983 a 20-something Darabont handed King a buck to make The Woman in the Room, one of the few amateur short films based on his work that the author enjoyed. But Darabont’s real obsession was a prison yarn, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, from Different Seasons, a collection of four novellas that represented King’s attempt to break out of the genre corner he’d written himself into over the years. With his ultimate goal a feature film, Darabont waited for his résumé to lengthen enough to support his aspirations before approaching King again. “In 1987, my first produced screenplay credit was A Nightmare on Elm Street 3,” says Darabont. “And I thought, Perhaps now is the time.”

Once Darabont received King’s blessing, he set about adapting Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. The 96-page story is anything but cinematic, consisting largely of Red ruminating about fellow prisoner Andy, confounding Hollywood’s predilection for high-concept “Harry Potter meets Die Hard” loglines. Even King “didn’t really understand how you make a movie out of it,” says Darabont. “To me it was just dead obvious.” Still, Darabont says he “wasn’t ready” to sit down at his word processor right away, and five years passed, as he focused on paid jobs writing scripts for The Blob and The Fly II.

Darabont, who “wanted to honor the source material,” mimicked the novella’s narrative thrust in his screenplay and even lifted some dialogue verbatim. Other plot points were entirely his invention, sharpening the film’s themes and adding dashes of cinematic violence. In King’s story, a minor character, Brooks, dies uneventfully in an old folks’ home. The movie dedicates a poignant montage to the now more pivotal Brooks’s inability to make it on the outside and his subsequent heart-wrenching suicide by hanging. Tommy, a young con who can clear Andy’s name, trades his silence for a transfer to a minimum-security prison in King’s version. The script has Tommy “chewed to pieces by gunfire.” And Darabont condensed King’s several wardens into the corrupt Warden Norton, who eventually blows his brains out rather than pay Lady Justice for his sins.

Alfred Hitchcock reportedly said some version of “To make a great film you need three things: the script, the script, and the script.” Robbins says of Darabont’s finished adaptation, “It was the best script I’ve ever read. Ever.” Freeman repeated a variation of that accolade—if not the best script, certainly among the top.

Completed in an eight-week writing jag, Darabont’s script had the good fortune to land on the desk of a filmmaker with “a prison obsession”—longtime Castle Rock Entertainment producer Liz Glotzer. “I like reading about prison for some reason,” she says. “Any script that came in that was a prison movie, [my co-workers] would say, ‘Oh, Liz’ll read it.’ ”

Prison films date back to Hollywood’s earliest days, and the genre includes such landmarks as The Big House, Cool Hand Luke, Papillon, Escape from Alcatraz, and Bad Boys. But prison films have never been on the list of reliable moneymakers, which made Glotzer’s threat to quit if Castle Rock didn’t make Shawshank all the more nervy, but her passion had been stirred by her emotional response to Darabont’s script, becoming so engrossed in it she “didn’t want to finish reading.” Echoing Robbins and Freeman, she says, “It was the best script I’d ever read when I read it.”

Luckily for her, director Rob Reiner—a founder and “godfather of the company,” according to Darabont—“flipped” for the script. Reiner then made the screenwriter an offer almost no one would refuse: a rumored $3 million to direct Shawshank himself.

The figure was “something like that,” says Darabont, before pausing to “set the record straight . . . I’ve read so much speculation through the years, and now with the Internet every asshole who doesn’t know crap knows everything. I’ve heard versions of this where there was some power struggle over the script and the truth is incredibly simple.”

Reiner had himself mined Different Seasons and struck a vein when he turned the novella The Body into 1986’s Oscar-nominated Stand by Me. By the 90s, Castle Rock—formed after Stand by Me’s success and named for the movie’s fictional town—had a string of hit one-sheets on its office walls, from When Harry Met Sally, to another Reiner adaptation of yet another King story, Misery. Coming off the success of 1992’s A Few Good Men, Reiner saw that film’s star, Tom Cruise, as Shawshank’s Andy Dufresne. Though Darabont was attached to direct his script, Castle Rock asked if he would consider this alternative: “A shitload of dough,” according to Darabont, in exchange for allowing Reiner to make the movie with Cruise.

Darabont, who had been born in a French refugee camp for Hungarians fleeing the 1956 revolution and subsequently grew up poor in L.A., was tempted. “In my struggling-writer days, I could barely meet the rent,” he says. The Shawshank payday, whatever its precise number, would have put Darabont at the top of a profession he’d been “trying to achieve membership in for a lot of years.” Glotzer confirms Darabont was “completely tormented” by the offer. As if to turn the screws, Castle Rock said it would finance any other movie he wanted to direct if he ceded to Reiner. Surprisingly, though Darabont was only 33, philosophical thinking won out because, he says, “you can continue to defer your dreams in exchange for money and, you know, die without ever having done the thing you set out to do.” Still, the decision to direct the film himself was “nerve-racking. People get fucked in this business all the time. Contractually, [Castle Rock] could fire me after the first meeting, say I wasn’t hacking it, and, oh, gee, we’re just going to bring in Rob Reiner.”

True to his reputation as “a mensch,” however, Reiner acted as Darabont’s mentor instead—though, according to Glotzer, one detail needled the older director: “Rob joked, ‘[Different Seasons] is on my desk for years. You would have thought we’d have read the next story! But we didn’t.” Says Reiner, “I find it interesting that two of the most talked-about film adaptations of Stephen King’s work [Stand by Me and The Shawshank Redemption] came from the same collection of novellas and don’t rely on classic horror or supernatural elements of storytelling. In an odd way, they unmask Stephen King as a writer of exquisitely observed characters and brilliant dialog.” (In 1998, a third novella became director Bryan Singer’s Apt Pupil. Blumhouse Productions, the company behind Paranormal Activity and Insidious, optioned The Breathing Method, the remaining novella, in 2012.)

With the director in place, casting calls went out. The narrator of King’s story is a white Irishman, hence the nickname Red. “My brain went to some of my all-time favorite actors like Gene Hackman and Robert Duvall,” says Darabont. “For one reason or another they weren’t available.” Producer Glotzer ignored the racial casting specs and suggested Morgan Freeman for the role.

Interviewing Freeman is like speaking with a favorite uncle who also happens to be God. With a melodic voice that’s calm and authoritative, Freeman has commanded aural attention since his stint in the 1970s as The Electric Company’s Easy Reader on PBS, where he sang, “I groove on all the words around,” in bell-bottoms. Shawshank was “an absolutely delightful script,” says Freeman. “So I called my agent and said, ‘It doesn’t matter which part it is—I want to be in it.’ He said, ‘Well, I think they want you to do Red.’ And I thought, Wow, I control the movie! I was flabbergasted by that.”

Offers went out to the 1990s’ usual suspects for the part of Andy Dufresne. Tom Hanks and Kevin Costner passed. And though Cruise loved the screenplay—even doing a table read with the filmmakers—he balked at taking direction from a green director. Cruise considered signing on if Reiner agreed to keep a watchful eye on the production. “And Rob said, ‘No, if you’re going to do it with [Darabont], it’s his vision,’ ” says Glotzer. “So then Tom Cruise didn’t want to do it.”

Freeman insists that he suggested Robbins, and Darabont defers to his recollection: “If Morgan says that he mentioned Tim, I’m perfectly willing to take him at his word.”

Unlike some movie stars who are shockingly diminutive, at six feet five inches, actor and director Tim Robbins holds one of the Oscars’ more obscure records: tallest winner (as supporting actor in 2003’s Mystic River). He cruises to our interview on a bicycle and talks passionately about hedge-funders crowding out Manhattan’s artists. Like his character Andy, Robbins’s “We the people” persona inspires an impulse to buck the status quo, even though we’re meeting in an upscale-hotel lobby in Santa Monica.

By the early 90s, Robbins had broken out of minor roles in The Love Boat and Top Gun. His ascent to stardom began when he was cast as the lunkhead pitcher “Nuke” LaLoosh in 1988’s Bull Durham. When he won best actor at 1992’s Cannes Film Festival for his role in The Player as a deliciously sleazy Hollywood studio executive, Newsweek named Robbins the “man of the moment.”

Robbins used his A-list status to insist that Darabont’s inexperience—he’d directed only one made-for-TV movie, Buried Alive—be counterbalanced by a seasoned cinematographer, Roger Deakins, whom Robbins had worked with the year before on the Coen brothers’ film The Hudsucker Proxy. (Deakins would go on to shoot the death-row drama Dead Man Walking, which Robbins directed.) The cast was rounded out by Bob Gunton, then primarily a stage and TV actor, as the sanctimonious Warden Norton Clancy Brown (who had played a delinquent opposite Sean Penn in Bad Boys) as the sadistic Captain Hadley and veteran character actor James Whitmore as beloved elderly convict Brooks Hatlen. James Gandolfini passed on playing Bogs, a prison rapist, for a role in True Romance that entailed sucker-punching Patricia Arquette. Brad Pitt, cast in the role of Tommy, dropped out after his brief but shirtless appearance in Thelma & Louise initiated his rise to leading man.

Filming on location is often something to be endured, and Shawshank’s schedule was particularly brutal: workdays were 15 to 18 hours, six days a week, over three humid months inside the former Ohio State Reformatory, in Mansfield, and on nearby constructed sets, which included the huge cellblock. “We were lucky to have Sundays off,” says Darabont.

A bakery in Mansfield now sells Bundt-cake replicas of the Gothic prison, which these days is a tourist attraction that draws Shawshank pilgrims. But in 1993 the defunct penitentiary—closed three years earlier for inhumane living conditions—“was a very bleak place,” according to Darabont. Robbins adds, “You could feel the pain. It was the pain of thousands of people.” The production employed former inmates who shared personal stories similar to those in Shawshank’s script, “in terms of the violence of the guards and throwing people off the top of cellblocks,” says Deakins.

Robbins remembers “going to that place inside for three months. It was never depressing, because Andy had this hope inside. But it was, at times, dark because of the situations that the character goes through.” Deakins confirms that working on the film was “a very intense situation. Sometimes the performances really affected me while I was shooting it.” The scene that gave Deakins “a tingle down the spine” is also Robbins’s favorite: the prisoners drinking beer on the sunny license-plate-factory roof. Coming more than a half an hour into the movie—and two years into Andy’s sentence—it’s the first bright spot in a film heretofore gray in palette and tone. Andy risks being thrown off the roof by Captain Hadley in order to procure a few “suds” for his fellow prisoners—a moment when the character shifts from victim to burgeoning legend. That Andy himself doesn’t drink is beside the point.

The scene was shot over a “hard, hard day,” says Freeman. “We were actually tarring that roof. And tar doesn’t stay hot and viscous long. It tends to dry and harden, so you’re really working. For the different setups you had to keep doing it over and over and over and over and over.”

Darabont recalls the scene as a complicated “technical thing,” because he had to match a camera move very precisely to some narration that Freeman had pre-recorded, requiring take after take. “Then I remember we got a nice take. I turned around, and somebody behind me had tears rolling down their face, and I thought, O.K., good, that one worked.’ ” By the end of the sequence “we were exhausted,” says Freeman. When the cast finally got to “sit down and drink that beer, it was very welcome.”

Robbins merely flashes his famously inscrutable smile when asked about tensions on the set of Shawshank, though he does allow that any “difficult times . . . had to do with the length of the days.” Freeman, like his character, Red, has no problem rounding out the narrative. “Most of the time, the tension was between the cast and director. I remember having a bad moment with the director, had a few of those,” says Freeman. Most “bad moments” stemmed from Darabont’s asking for repeated takes. “The answer [I’d give him] was no,” says Freeman. “I don’t want to be chewing the scenery. Acting itself isn’t difficult. But having to do something again and again for no discernible reason tends to be a bit debilitating to the energy.” Freeman recalls a scene where the guards re-trace Andy’s escape route, retching when they discover themselves sitting in raw sewage. “My character was listening and laughing, just howling with laughter. I had to shoot that too many times.”

Darabont puts a diplomatic spin on his feature-film debut: “I learned a lot. A director really needs to have an internal barometer to measure what any given actor needs.”

Darabont likens the stress of principal photography to “being beaten with sticks” as the constant artistic compromise makes “every day of filming feel like a failure.” But in the editing room “you start to forget all those self-torturing thoughts.” The first edit of a film that ran nearly two and a half hours in its trimmest form was “long,” says Glotzer. Among the scenes eventually left on the cutting-room floor was one of Red adjusting unevenly to his release during the Summer of Love, when, as his voiceover proclaims, there’s “not a brassiere to be seen.” One scene the producer insisted on keeping was her idea in the first place: Red and Andy’s post-prison reunion on a beach in Zihuatanejo, Mexico. Darabont’s original story ended like King’s—ambiguously—with Red on a bus hoping to get to Mexico. Darabont thought Glotzer’s ending was the “commercial, sappy version,” she says. Yet Glotzer was “adamant. If what you intend is that they’re going to get together, why not give the audience the pleasure of seeing them?”

A leisurely paced prison film with literary inflection didn’t exactly scream blockbuster. Yet Shawshank tested through the roof, according to Glotzer. “I mean, they were the best screenings ever.” Critics were mostly in agreement. Gene Siskel named it “one of the year’s best films” and compared it to One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest, though the long-serving Los Angeles critic Kenneth Turan captured a persistent minority objection to the movie’s “sentimentality,” likening the picture to “a big glob of cotton candy.”

When the movie opened on September 23, 1994, expectations were high. Hollywood tradition dictates filmmakers drive from theater to theater on opening night, ostensibly to stand in the back of packed houses to witness audiences laughing and crying at all the carefully constructed moments. Glotzer recalls that she and Darabont “went to the Cinerama Dome, which was the coolest theater,” where the film was playing. Located on Sunset Boulevard, the 1960s-built movie house has more than 900 seats, but “no one was there”—which Glotzer blames on the “bad L.A. Times review.” The desperate filmmakers cornered two girls outside and “actually sold tickets” on the premise that if the pair didn’t like Shawshank they could call Castle Rock on Monday for a refund. “That was our big opening night,” Glotzer says dryly.

Freeman blames the title for the film’s initial flameout. “Nobody could say, ‘Shawshank Redemption.’ What sells anything is word of mouth. Now, your friends say, ‘Ah, man, I saw this movie, The . . . what was it? Shank, Sham, Shim? Something like that. Anyways, terrific.’ Well, that doesn’t sell you.”

Even if moviegoers could remember the title, 1994 was the year of two other films on opposite sides of the naughty-nice spectrum: Pulp Fiction and Forrest Gump. Both films became instant cultural phenomena—quoted, parodied, and ultimately devouring box-office receipts worldwide, while “The Shimshunk Reduction,” as Freeman started calling it, continued to play to mostly empty houses.

But in early 1995, Shawshank got its first shot at redemption when the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences nominated the film in seven categories, including best picture, best actor (Freeman), and best adapted screenplay. An awards-season re-release added a bit more money to the coffers. The film was snubbed on Oscar night, a big evening for Forrest Gump, but the award buzz gave Shawshank a second life when it was released on VHS shortly after the Oscars. It would become the top-renting title that year. That turn of events “surprised me most,” says Deakins. “Go figure.”

In the early 90s, the cable-television pioneer Ted Turner was hungry for “quality entertainment product,” as he once put it, to feed his new TNT network. He already owned MGM’s pre-1948 film library. Yet Turner couldn’t rely on dated talkies to bring in new audiences, so in 1993 he bought Castle Rock to expand his repertory. With production and distribution now under one roof, TNT was able to leapfrog the networks—which normally got first dibs on broadcast rights to new movies—and acquired the rights to Shawshank, Turner in essence selling the film to himself.

Memories are faulty 20 years on, especially when it comes to recalling precise figures, and the box containing the financial records for Shawshank has gone missing on a studio lot. Many accounts have suggested that Turner sold himself the rights for “much lower than normal for such a big film,” as the Shawshank trivia page on IMDb puts it. Darabont remembers it this way: “Turner, bless his heart, part of his deal for those movies that got funded during his ownership [of Castle Rock] was that he got to air them as much as he wanted.” A more likely scenario, in Glotzer’s view, starts with the cost of a film’s licensing fee generally being based on its box-office receipts Shawshank’s dismal $28 million gross would have translated into a bargain basement fee while TNT could still charge a premium for commercial time. However the economic stars aligned, TNT first aired the movie in June 1997 to top basic-cable ratings, and then began showing it over and over . . . and over. “Yeah, someone said, ‘On any given day, turn on the TV and see The Shawshank Redemption,’ ” says Freeman.

And it was through television that the real alchemy between Shawshank and its audience began. The film’s popularity “wasn’t a weed growing,” says Freeman. “It was kind of an oak tree or something—you know, slow growth.”

A chick flick The Shawshank Redemption is not. There are only two actresses in the film—not counting screen-siren posters of Rita Hayworth, Marilyn Monroe, and Raquel Welch—speaking 23 words of dialogue (eight of which are repetitions of “Oh God” in a sex scene). Rather, Shawshank falls under the rubric of “guy cry” movies. Though Deakins’s nuanced cinematography is lost on the small screen, watching Shawshank on TV allows a man to shed a few cathartic tears—usually during the montage where Brooks hangs himself—while ensconced on his Barcalounger in the privacy of his home. (A typical Tweet on the subject comes from @chrisk69: “A man is allowed to cry like a little girl once a year, and as Shawshank Redemption is on the TV tonight my time has come. #Brooks­was­here.”) Many home viewers embraced the film’s sentiment and emotion—qualities some critics took Shawshank to the woodshed for—and were moved by the film’s theme of undying hope as expressed through Red and Andy’s undying bond.

At heart, the film is that rare beast: a relationship movie for men. As Robbins puts it, “Here was a movie about the friendship of two men without a car chase in it.” Freeman goes one step further, saying, “To me it was a love affair. It was two men who really loved each other.” Andy and Red’s on-screen relationship, nurtured over decades, mirrors the intimate connection viewers gradually built with the film over the same time frame. Eventually coming upon Shawshank while flipping channels had a hypnotic effect for many: there was Freeman’s omnipresent honeypot voice luring audiences to entertainment comfort food like a siren. Steven Spielberg has called it his “chewing-gum movie,” says Darabont. “In other words, you’ve stepped in it and can’t get it off your foot. You have to watch the rest of the movie.” Perhaps this is because, as Anthony Lane wrote in an October 1994 New Yorker Film File, despite “moments of hokey togetherness, and way too much voice-over . . . the picture stays on track and leaves you, appropriately enough, with a surging sense of release.”

It’s a Wonderful Life and The Wizard of Oz—the most viewed film of all time, according to the Library of Congress—followed similarly erratic paths into America’s psyche. Both were box-office disappointments that were defibrillated by TV reruns. And like The Wizard of Oz’s “There’s no place like home,” Shawshank quotes are now part of the beloved-dialogue lexicon. “It’s always, ‘Get busy living or get busy dying,’ ” says Freeman. “That must be the one that resonates the most. You know, are you going to do something about your life or not?” That mantra alone has inspired everything from T-shirts and tattoos to pop songs and sermons.

Prince William Gives His First-Ever TED Talk &mdash from Outside Windsor Castle!

"Over my Grandmother's lifetime, the last 90 years or so, our impact has accelerated so fast that our climate, oceans, air, nature and all that depends on them are in peril," the Duke of Cambridge said

The royal took part in his first-ever TED Talk on Saturday during਌ountdown — TED&aposs first free and virtual conference devoted entirely to tackling global warming.

Speaking outside from Windsor, near Queen Elizabeth’s royal residence, William, 38, said, “Growing up in my family gives you a certain sense of history. I’m simply the latest in a line that can be traced back generations. This oak tree is close to Windsor Castle, which has been home to my family for over 900 years. Thirty-nine monarchs have lived here and enjoyed these beautiful surroundings.”

“While these oaks have been growing, around 35 billion people have lived their lives on our planet. That’s 35 billion lifetimes worth of hope, love, fear and dreams,” he continued.

“Over my Grandmother’s lifetime, the last 90 years or so, our impact has accelerated so fast that our climate, oceans, air, nature and all that depends on them are in peril,” he said.

He went on to describe the lasting effects of global warming.

“This oak has stood here for centuries. But never has it faced a decade like this. We start this new decade knowing that it is the most consequential period in history,” he said. “The science is irrefutable. If we do not act in this decade, the damage that we have done will be irreversible and the effects felt not just by future generations, but by all of us alive today.”

William then discussed his Earthshot Prize — his ambitious program will see five awards of $1.3 million given each year, promoting at least 50 solutions to the world’s greatest environmental issues before 2030.

“I’ve long been inspired by President John F. Kennedy’s 1961 mission to put a man on the moon within a decade – he named it the moonshot. It seemed crazy. We had only just launched the first satellite. Putting a man on the moon, that quickly, seemed impossible,” he said.

Ted Castle (1918-2000)/Magnum/The Museum of Modern Art/USIA - Mother and Child (The Family of Man), c.1950s

Size/Media: Approx. 10" x 8" Glossy fiber silver gelatin
Dates: (Probably shot c.1950s/Printed no later than 1959) w/ USIA mimeographed text on verso.
Condition: Dings and creases throughout. Large crease in the lower margin which slightly affects lower portion of image. Corner creases. (Please see scans for further information).

United States Information Agency (USIA)-issued press photo of Ted Castle's c.1950s shot of a mother and child.
This print was circulated by the USIA to promote Edward Steichen's seminal photography exhibition (and book), "The Family of Man".
This image was published on p.31 of "The Family of Man".

PLEASE NOTE: This photo ships from the United States. Please be aware that your country may add import taxes and duties upon delivery.

Inside Pentillie Castle which celebrities use as a hidden hangout

Pentillie Castle was built by Sir James Tillie in 1698 – a man so vain and arrogant he bought his own knighthood from James II for the princely sum of £10,000 and had a statue of himself erected in front of his manor house.

The Coryton family, who married into the Tillies, inherited the estate and commanding views of the River Tamar in the late 1780s and have owned and managed the place ever since.

What was originally a tower was expanded and transformed throughout the ages, with the final works of the Victorian era creating what the castle and garden are today.

The castle fell into disrepair until Ted and Sarah Coryton inherited the place in the late Nineties from a cousin.

A military and civilian helicopter pilot who worked on oil projects all over Africa and the Middle East, in places too remote to access by roads, Ted was originally brought in to help Jeffrey Coryton run the estate in the mid-Nineties.

"I didn’t know how to farm," he said. "I enrolled in a course at Seale-Hayne College near Newton Abbot but while I was on the course Jeffrey died and we ended up with the estate. Until the mid-Nineties I had never actually come to Pentillie in my life."

Ted, who fully inherited the castle in 2007, sat the whole family down one Christmas Eve and asked them what they wanted to do with Pentillie.

"We could have sold the place up I suppose but it would have been whimsical to do so when the estate had been in our family for 300 years," he said.

"We would have had to pay £5 million in inheritance tax and it would have been and gone and we would have been none the wiser. So to avoid having to pay this massive bill we created a business."

Ted, Sarah and their daughter Sammie – their other two children are not involved in the business – decided to turn the castle into a luxurious wedding venue.

But to achieve the high-quality service they wanted to offer guests, the listed castle had to be brought up to modern standards. Nine bedrooms with ensuite bathrooms were created along with two more attic rooms.

The electrics and heating had to be redone and the building was made to comply with fire regulations – in all the family invested close to £2 million in dragging Pentillie into the 21st century.

"I hate Airbnb," said Ted. "No one complies with any regulations and they don’t pay anything in business rates when I do."

While the 1,500-acre estate continues to be farmed by tenant farmers, the main income generator is the wedding venue business and five-star B&B accommodation and has remained the case for ten years or so.

Sammie, who owns the business and runs it with her parents, said: "Going down the luxury wedding venue route was the easiest thing to market for Pentillie.

"Most of our guests have a connection to Cornwall. The estate is fabulous and the couple and their guests have the sole run of the place to themselves while our staff are there for them to make sure they have the best time ever."

With most wedding bookings eating up three days of the week, it became apparent that going down the B&B route would generate further income for the estate. Pentillie employs between 14 and 20 staff at different times of the year.

"We’re successful because we’re still here," said Ted. "People said we would go under within three years. But we’re very much still standing."

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Sammie added: "Our guests love being here. We consistently receive amazing reviews from our visitors, many of whom come back again and again.

"There is something special here. People love to experience the Pentillie magic. It’s like a home from home and more for our guests.

"Having said that, we can’t afford to live here, which is why we live off the estate. It may as well be an experience for other people."

Not pitching themselves as a ‘wedding factory’ is also keeping the magic alive and the experience unique for guests too.

"We only do 25 weddings a year," said Sammie. "We offer great customer service and the whole space inside and out is yours for the duration of your wedding.

"Pentillie is such a beautiful place but we’ve made sure there is not a bin or solar farm in sight so it makes for very Instagrammable weddings."

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In 2008, when the restoration work was in full swing, the plasterer involved in the work scratched a message in the fresh plaster in memory of the British soldiers who had lost their lives in the recent Afghanistan and Iraq wars.

Sammie said: "We realised through talking to him that he was a former Royal Marine and was suffering from PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). We offered him a stay at Pentillie, which is something we have been doing with other veterans ever since."

Working with Armed Forces charities such as Help For Heroes, Pentillie now closes down twice a year for a week at a time so veterans can stay and find respite, solace and the space they need to breathe and clear their minds.

At first the Corytons helped organise &aposvery macho things&apos like biking, archery or kayaking, but this has evolved into more mindful and relaxing activities over the years, such as arts classes or yoga, which is what veterans, including women and older people, prefer.

"The feedback we have received has been tremendous," said Ted. "One veteran wrote to us to say that staying at Pentillie had saved his life.

"We have a successful wedding business so we can close the estate down for two weeks to do these things for veterans."

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At the time the restoration work was under way, the estate enjoyed its first glimpse of TV glory with an appearance on the first season of Country House Rescue in December 2009.

The stately home has since acted as a backdrop for all three seasons of Sky One&aposs Delicious, with Dawn French, and has also featured in German TV adaptations of Rosamunde Pilcher’s romance books.

Appearing on TV shows like Delicious has helped the business with a 25% jump in demand.

Dawn French also stayed at Pentillie while filming ITV’s Glass Houses nearby, with many guests bumping into the actress in the corridors or at breakfast.

"We closed the estate for several weeks in the summer to facilitate the filming of Delicious," said Sammie. "It wasn&apost to some of our returning guests&apos liking but it&aposs been a boon for the business.

"Dawn was incredibly generous in every sense, with our staff, the crews, our other guests. She was so unselfish."

About 65% of guests are British, with Germans, Australians, Americans and Scandinavians forming the bulk of the foreign visitors.

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Pentillie has been a popular hangout for celebrities, especially with artists playing at the Port Eliot Festival down the road.

Over the years the estate has also hosted Land Rover Defender days to which drivers come to rip it up around some of the tracks on the estate.

Every summer it also holds what has now been nicknamed Pengrillie – a barbecue festival with some 1,000 people attending.

"We have a lot of ideas for the future," said Sammie. "But at the end of the day the house has to make money for all the other things to happen.

"One thing Pentillie is not though is Heligan. We have a nice garden, but if you come to Pentillie to see a lesser-spotted camellia or whatever, you will be disappointed. This is not what we are about.

"One thing we’re not about either is a wedding factory doing 120 weddings a year. That won&apost change."


'And what's more, this damage will not be felt equally by everyone. It is the most vulnerable, those with the fewest resources, and those who have done the least to cause climate change, who will be impacted the most.

'These stark facts are terrifying. How can we hope to fix such massive, intractable problems? It may seem overwhelming. But it is possible.'

William highlighted how, in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, hospitals have been built overnight and billions of pounds have been poured into searching for a vaccine and better treatments.

Stood beneath a magnificent oak tree in the grounds of Windsor Castle, where the talk was recorded, the Duke said now is the time for each one of us to 'show leadership'

'W e've been inspired by heroes emerging in every community across the world,' he added.

'Young people no longer believe that change is too difficult. They've witnessed the world turn on its head. They believe that the climate crisis and the threat to our biodiversity deserves our full attention and ambition. And they're right.'

William revealed the inspiration behind the name for his new Earthshot Prize initiative, which has been likened to a green Nobel Prize and is the most prestigious global environment prize in history.

The ambitious decade-long project will see a total of 50 environmental pioneers each awarded a £1million prize for their work tackling major problems across climate and energy, nature and biodiversity, oceans, air pollution and fresh water.

William revealed the inspiration behind the name for his new Earthshot Prize initiative, which has been likened to a green Nobel Prize and is the most prestigious global environment prize in history

Windsor's great oak has cast its spell of 39 monarchs across nine centuries since it was a sapling

The £50million project is funded by a network of philanthropic organisations and private companies and individuals including Bloomberg Philanthropies, the Jack Ma Foundation and US billionaire Marc Benioff and his wife, Lynne.

William said he has 'long been inspired' by President John F Kennedy's 1961 mission to put a man on the moon within a decade – which he named the moonshot.

Prince William's TED Talk in its entirety

Growing up in my family gives you a certain sense of history. I'm simply the latest in a line that can be traced back generations.

This oak tree is close to Windsor Castle, which has been home to my family for over 900 years. Thirty nine monarchs have lived here and enjoyed these beautiful surroundings. I've walked here many times myself and it always amazes me that some of the trees planted here – living organisms dependent on soil, rain and sunlight – were here as they laid the first stones of Windsor Castle.

That makes some of the oaks here almost a thousand years old. These trees germinated during the reign of William the Conqueror in 1066 – from a simple acorn like this. By the time that Henry VIII lived here, they had grown into mature, impressive giants. And amazingly, some of those very same trees still survive here today.

They're a bit gnarled and hollowed out, but they're still very much alive. While these oaks have been growing, around 35 billion people have lived their lives on our planet. That's 35 billion lifetimes worth of hope, love, fear and dreams.

In that time, humankind has invented air travel, vaccines and computers. We've explored every part of the globe, sequenced the human genome and even escaped Earth's atmosphere. Our speed of innovation has been incredible.

But so too has the acceleration of our impact. Over my grandmother's lifetime, the last 90 years or so, our impact has accelerated so fast that our climate, oceans, air, nature and all that depends on them are in peril.

This oak has stood here for centuries. But never has it faced a decade like this. We start this new decade knowing that it is the most consequential period in history.

The science is irrefutable. If we do not act in this decade, the damage that we have done will be irreversible and the effects felt not just by future generations, but by all of us alive today. And what's more, this damage will not be felt equally by everyone. It is the most vulnerable, those with the fewest resources, and those who have done the least to cause climate change, who will be impacted the most.

These stark facts are terrifying. How can we hope to fix such massive, intractable problems? It may seem overwhelming. But it is possible.

Humans have an extraordinary capacity to set goals and strive to achieve them. I've long been inspired by President John F Kennedy's 1961 mission to put a man on the moon within a decade – he named it the moonshot.

It seemed crazy. We had only just launched the first satellite. Putting a man on the moon, that quickly, seemed impossible. But this simple challenge encompassed so much. He called it a goal to 'organise and measure the best of our energies and skills'. In taking that giant leap for mankind, the team behind the moonshot united millions of people around the world in awe that this crazy ambition wasn't so crazy after all. And along the way, it helped the invention of breathing equipment, CAT scanners and solar panels.

But now, rather than a moonshot for this decade - we need Earthshots. We must harness that same spirit of human ingenuity and purpose and turn it with laser sharp focus and urgency on the most pressing challenge we have ever faced – repairing our planet.

The shared goals for our generation are clear. Together we must protect and restore nature, clean our air, revive our oceans, build a waste-free world and fix our climate. And we must strive to do all of this in a decade.

If we achieve these goals, by 2030 our lives won't be worse, and we won't have to sacrifice everything we enjoy. Instead, the way we live will be healthier, cleaner, smarter and better for all of us.

The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the funds flowing into the economic recovery, demonstrate how much can be achieved when those in positions of power come together and decide to act.

We've built hospitals overnight. Re-purposed factories. Poured billions into the search for a vaccine and better treatments. And we've been inspired by heroes emerging in every community across the world.

Young people no longer believe that change is too difficult. They've witnessed the world turn on its head. They believe that the climate crisis and the threat to our biodiversity deserves our full attention and ambition. And they're right.

So now is the time for each one of us to show leadership. Whether you're a farmer in the US, a tech owner in China, a politician in Kenya, a banker in Britain, a fisherman in the Maldives, a community leader in Brazil, or a student in India. Every single one of us has a role to play in harnessing whatever opportunity we have.

I'm committed to using the unique position that I have to help set those Earthshot goals and reward people, across every sector of society and in every part of the world, who do their bit to help achieve them.

Some people are motivated to act by a crisis. But for many, the incentive to act only comes when they believe that change is possible. That it isn't a lost cause. If people really believe that these challenges – these Earthshots – are possible, just imagine all the potential we will unleash!

I'm determined to both start and end this decade as an optimist. Whilst our generation represents just a blip in the lifetime of these magnificent oaks, we have the power and potential to ensure that they, and all life on earth, thrive for another thousand years and more. But only if we now unleash the greatest talents of our generation to repair our planet. We have no choice but to succeed. Thank you.

' It seemed crazy,' he explained. 'We had only just launched the first satellite. Putting a man on the moon, that quickly, seemed impossible. But this simple challenge encompassed so much.

'He called it a goal to 'organise and measure the best of our energies and skills'. In taking that giant leap for mankind, the team behind the moonshot united millions of people around the world in awe that this crazy ambition wasn't so crazy after all. And along the way, it helped the invention of breathing equipment, CAT scanners and solar panels.

'But now, rather than a moonshot for this decade - we need Earthshots. We must harness that same spirit of human ingenuity and purpose and turn it with laser sharp focus and urgency on the most pressing challenge we have ever faced – repairing our planet.

'The shared goals for our generation are clear. Together we must protect and restore nature, clean our air, revive our oceans, build a waste-free world and fix our climate. And we must strive to do all of this in a decade.

'If we achieve these goals, by 2030 our lives won't be worse, and we won't have to sacrifice everything we enjoy. Instead, the way we live will be healthier, cleaner, smarter and better for all of us.'

The prince concluded by saying he is determined to start and end this decade as an 'optimist'.

Referencing the 900-year-old trees surrounding him in the ground of Windsor, he went on: 'Whilst our generation represents just a blip in the lifetime of these magnificent oaks, we have the power and potential to ensure that they, and all life on earth, thrive for another thousand years and more.

'But only if we now unleash the greatest talents of our generation to repair our planet. We have no choice but to succeed.'

The Earthshot Prize aims to find new solutions that work on every level, have a positive effect on environmental change and improve living standards globally, particularly for communities who are most at risk from climate change.

Prizes could be awarded to a wide range of individuals, teams or collaborations – scientists, activists, economists, community projects, leaders, governments, banks, businesses, cities, and countries – anyone whose workable solutions make a substantial contribution to achieving the Earthshots.

The five Earthshots are: Protect and restore nature, Clean our air, revive our oceans, build a waste-free world, and fix our climate.

Each Earthshot is underpinned by scientifically agreed targets - including the UN Sustainable Development Goals and other internationally recognised measures to help repair our planet.

Together, they form a unique set of challenges rooted in science, which aim to generate new ways of thinking, as well as new technologies, systems, policies and solutions.

By bringing these five critical issues together, The Earthshot Prize recognises the interconnectivity between environmental challenges and the urgent need to tackle them together.

This week William unveiled his team of high-profile environmental activists, philanthropic leaders and A-listers that are members of The Earthshot Prize Council.

The Earthshot Prize Council is a list of influential individuals from a wide range of different sectors, all of whom are committed to championing positive action in the environmental space.

The Duke will be joined on the team by celebrities and royalty including Queen Rania Al Abdullah, popstar Shakira and actor Cate Blanchett on the council.

In a video clip meeting with the council, the royal joked: 'I'm a very boring coach on the corner at the moment, looking for some very skillful players to help me beat the opposition and we've got a really wonderful team put together on the council.'

Others on the council include athletes, professional footballer Dani Alves and Naismith Basketball Hall of Famer and environmentalist Yao Ming, as well as environmental activists including Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim and Christiana Figueres.

In an Instagram post shared on the Kensington Royal page, the royal posted: 'The @Earthshotprize council is a diverse, broad range of people from all around the world who I've been talking to over the last few weeks and months.

'We've got a really fantastic council together.'

A Palace source said: '[William's] confidence has grown over time – he's not naturally the boldest individual in asserting things and himself. But what he has realised is that he has a role to play, a global leadership role to play, and now is the time to play it.'

In the coming months, further members of The Earthshot Prize Council will be announced as the global coalition supporting the Prize expands.

Every year from 2021 until 2030, The Earthshot Prize Council will award The Earthshot Prize to five winners, one per Earthshot.

They will be supported by a distinguished panel of experts will support the judging process, making recommendations to the Prize Council who will select the final winners.

Speaking after her announcement on the council, Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah said: 'Seen from outer space, our planet is borderless the same can be said for the greatest challenges we face today.

'For too long, we have neglected our shared world, and today we are reaping the shared consequences. None of us can opt out of the damaging ramifications of climate change, pollution, or resource depletion.

'And while the situation is urgent, it is not hopeless. When our backs are against the wall, humanity has a knack for coming together to find innovative solutions.

'We push back and power through. I am hopeful that platforms such as the Earthshot Prize will help us do just that.'

Meanwhile Shakira said: 'Your children, my children – they have to find ways to reduce carbon emissions, to repair our oceans, to clean the air.

So we need young minds to be informed and invested, which is why education is so important. But we can't just stand still.

'We have to lead the way and we have to do it now. I know it's ambitious and I know there will be so many challenges along the way but I also know there will be so many who will rise to the occasion.'

In an interview with CNN this week, William said that Prince Charles, 71, and the Duke of Edinburgh, 99, had inspired his interest in the natural world.

Prince William has launched the most prestigious global environment prize in history, as the five challenges at the heart of The Earthshot Prize are unveiled. Pictured, with Sir David Attenborough

He said: 'My grandfather started doing stuff with conservation a long time ago, WWF, my father was ahead of his time talking about climate change.

'I don't want to be ahead of my time because we are already too late. Now is the time to act.

'My children look to me and ask me lot of questions, they love the natural world.

'And they want to know answers and want to know why there is so much negativity and why is everyone so worried and how bad can it get?

'And I want to turn round to them and say, 'we have solutions, we can find a way through this'.

Prince William said his father Charles was 'ahead of his time' as he launched the most prestigious global environment prize in history

'Human ingenuity and human spirit and innovation is huge. We put a man on the moon, we can do this.

'Going through Covid has been horrendous for people and we have lost a lot of people, very sadly. I think what Covid has taught us is that this is the first difficult time that my generation and younger generations have faced.

'Obviously older generations have been through the war and there is nothing like that. It was truly horrendous. But this has been a tricky time for everyone.

'If there is one ray of light that can come out of this is that people have been outside more, they have experienced nature, they have heard the birds because the aeroplanes have been less and the roads have been calmer.

Prince William also unveiled the team of A-listers and environmental activists who will sit alongside him on the Earthshot Prize council today (pictured, clockwise from top left, Shakira, Sir David Attenborough, Indra Nooyi, Dani Alves, Christiana Figueres, Naoko Yamazaki, Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim, Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah, Cate Blanchett, Yao Ming, Jack Ma, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, and Prijnce William)

'And I hope people at the moment connect and realise how special the green and natural world around them is. I think if we can find the money, and the collaboration and the willpower to tackle Covid like we have done, we can do this for the environment as well.'

As well as identifying evidence-based solutions to the biggest environmental problems the planet faces, The Earthshot Prize aims to turn the current pessimism surrounding environmental issues into optimism that we can rise to the biggest challenges of our time.

It is the biggest initiative to date from both Prince William and The Royal Foundation and was first introduced on 31st December 2019.

Nominations will open on 1st November, with over 100 nominating partners from across the world being invited to submit nominations of those individuals, communities, businesses and organisations who could win The Earthshot Prize.

Who will join Prince William on the Earthshot Prize Council?

Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah, Jordan

Queen Rania of Al Abdullah is the queen consort of Jordan and is known for her humanitarian focus and for using her platform to advocate for women's right and issues of sustainability.

Cate Blanchett – actor, producer and humanitarian, Australia

Cate Blanchett is an Oscar winning actress, with roles in blockbusters including 'Elizabeth', 'The Curious Case of Benjamin Button', 'The Aviator' and as Hela in 'Thor: Ragnorak'.

She is also an avid environmental campaigner, having been inspired to get involved by Al Gore, and has worked tirelessly for causes both in her native Australia and around the globe.

She is an ambassador for Australian Conservation Foundation and visited politicians and people in Queensland to raise awareness of climate issues.

Christiana Figueres – Former UN climate chief, responsible for the landmark Paris Agreement on Climate Change (Costa Rica)

Christiana Figueres is a diplomat with experience in high level national and international policy and multilateral negotiations. She was appointed Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in July 2010, six months after the COP15 failed in Copenhagen.

During the next six years she worked to rebuild the global climate change negotiating process, leading to the 2015 Paris agreement, widely recognized as a historical achievement.

Dani Alves – professional footballer (Brazil)

Dani Alves is a professional footballer for Brazil. Speaking upon being chosen for the council, he said: 'It's the most important power in the world – nature. If you give it good things then nature gives good things back to you.

'We're going to make a good team.'

Sir David Attenborough – broadcaster and natural historian (UK)

Sir David Frederick Attenborough is an English broadcaster and natural historian. He is best known for writing and presenting and is considered a national treasure in the UK.

Sir David has become more vocal in his support of environmental causes over the last two decades, saying: 'I really do think things are about to start to move, and this sort of idea could be the spark that is really going to give it the lift and the impetus to develop into something huge.

'It's a great source of hope, and I hope it spreads around the world.'

Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim – environmental activist (Chad)

Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim is an environmental activist and geographer. She is the Coordinator of the Association of Peul Women and Autochthonous Peoples of Chad (AFPAT) and served as the co-director of the pavilion of the World Indigenous Peoples' Initiative and Pavilion at COP21, COP22 and COP23.

Indra Nooyi – business executive and former Chairman & CEO of PepsiCo (US & India)

Indra Nooyi is an Indian-American business executive and former chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) of PepsiCo, who is consistently ranked as amoung the top 100 most powerful women in the world.

In 2017, she was ranked the 2nd most powerful woman once more on the Forbes list of The 19 Most Powerful Women in Business.

She serves on the boards for Amazon and the International Cricket Council.

Jack Ma – philanthropist, entrepreneur and UNSDG Advocate (China)

Jack Ma is a Chinese business magnate, investor and philanthropist, as well as the co-founder and former executive chairman of Alibaba Group, a multinational technology conglomerate.

Ma is a global ambassador for Chinese business and is often listed as one of the world's most powerful people, with Forbes ranking him 21st on its 'World's Most Powerful People' list.

As of 29 July 2020, with a fortune of $48.2 billion, Ma is the second-wealthiest person in China and one of the wealthiest people in the world.

Naoko Yamazaki – former astronaut onboard the International Space Station (Japan)

Naoko Yamazaki i s a former Japanese astronaut and the second Japanese woman to fly in space.

She revealed: 'It's been more than half a century since human beings reached space and even the moon. However, the Earth is our only home planet.

'When I saw the International Space Station, I saw it as a symbol of international collaboration. If we all put our forces together for a common goal, we can make a great achievement.'

Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala – economist and international development expert (Nigeria)

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a Nigerian-born economist and international development expert. She sits on the Boards of Standard Chartered Bank, Twitter, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), and the African Risk Capacity (ARC)

Shakira – singer and philanthropist (Colombia)

Shakira is a Colombian singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, actress, and philanthropist. She is one of 17 advocates for the UN's Sustainable Development Goals.

Yao Ming - Naismith Basketball Hall of Famer and environmentalist (China)

Yao Ming is a Chinese basketball executive and former professional player. He was also named the UN Environment Programme's first-ever Environmental Champion.

He pledged to give up eating shark's fin soup, a Chinese delicacy, in association with a WildAid campaign to promote wildlife protection.

Nominators will include the Global Alliance but also academic and non-profit institutions from across the world who have been selected for their ability to identify the most impactful solutions to the Earthshots.

The 5-stage prize process to select a winner for each Earthshot has been designed in partnership with the Centre for Public Impact and a range of international experts.

Nominations will be screened as part of an independent assessment process run by Deloitte, the implementation partner.

A distinguished panel of experts will support the judging process, making recommendations to the Prize Council who will select the final winners.

Among the celebrities who form a part of the panel who will decide the winners of the Earthshot Prize is A-list actress Cate Blanchett (pictured with Prince William)

An awards ceremony will take place in different cities across the world each year between 2021 and 2030, at which the five winners for each of the Earthshots will be selected from 15 finalists. The first awards ceremony will take place in London in autumn 2021.

After the awards, each winner will receive a global platform and prestigious profile, with their stories being showcased over the decade and the ambition that their solutions lead to mass adoption, replication and scaling.

The £1 million in prize money will support environmental and conservation projects that are agreed with the winners.

Shortlisted nominees will also be given tailored support and opportunities to help scale their work, including being connected with an ecosystem of likeminded individuals and organisations.

How is the Earthshot Prize funded?

The prize will be funded by a network of organisations and private philanthropists from around the world.

The first six Global Alliance Founding Partners have been named today with more partners to be announced over the coming months.

The Jack Ma Foundation: Billionaire Alibaba founder Jack Ma, China's richest man, set up a foundation to on improving education, the environment and public health.

Ma is a divisive character and made headlines last year over comments saying employees should be prepared to work 12 hours a day, six days a week.

He also urged employees to have more sex in a bid to have a better work-life balance.

Self-made Mr Ma, 55, is worth $42.8billion (£32.9billion) and was the wealthiest man in China in 2019, according to Forbes.

Earlier this year the foundation donated 100million yuan (£11million, $14.4million) to help scientists develop the vaccine for Covid-19.

Bloomberg Philanthropies: Founded by billionaire Mike Bloomberg, the $7 billion Bloomberg Philanthropies focuses its resources on five areas: the environment, public health, the arts, government innovation and education.

The foundation has spent more than has spent more than $100 million on climate initiatives and favours projects that align with his political views.

Bloomberg, who ran an unsuccessful campaign to be the Democratic nomineee for US president, is a committed environmentalist and has advocated policy to fight climate change since he was mayor of New York City.

Marc and Lynne Benioff: A millionaire by 25, Marc Benioff was the youngest ever vice-president of software giant Oracle.

Today, Mr Benioff, 55, is worth £5.5 billion thanks to the success of the company he founded shortly after that encounter, Salesforce, which employs 50,000 people around the globe including more than 1,500 in the UK.

His firm is the world leader in 'customer relationship management software' which uses the cloud to help businesses organise information about their customers and has an annual revenue of £13 billion.

He is also one of the world's greatest philanthropists thanks to an encounter with an Indian guru who encouraged him to do more for others.

The tech tycoon donated £1 million of his fortune to support the Mail Force Charity, set up by a consortium led by the Daily Mail, along with another £1 million from Salesforce.

In total he has spent around £20 million sourcing and supplying PPE to hospitals around the world.

The Paul G. Allen Family Foundation: Paul G. Allen, who died last year, founded the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation with his sister Jody to give away the majority of the $20 billion-plus fortune he accumulated as Microsoft co-founder, technology investor, real estate magnate and NFL and NBA team owner.

The foundation supports a global portfolio of frontline partners working to preserve ocean health, protect wildlife, combat climate change, and strengthen communities.

In June it announced two contributions to support people affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Washington state, adding up to $2.2 million.

DP World in partnership with Dubai EXPO 2020: DP World, founded by Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem, is an Emirati multinational logistics company based in Dubai.

The only commercial company on the list, DP World has been recognised for its work on the environment and sustainability.

The Aga Khan Development Network: A network of private, non-denominational development agencies founded by the Aga Khan. Their work addresses a range of issues. Environmental projects include renewable energy in Uganda, clean energy in central Asia and a tree-planting project in Pakistan.

The current Aga Khan enjoys a close relationship with the Royal Family. Prince William and Kate Middleton visited the Aga Khan centre in October 2019.

Bloody Beginnings

Chillingham was occupied from prehistoric times. During the Second World War, an impromptu excavation in the castle grounds by a German POW uncovering flint and antler arrowheads and axes dating to the Bronze Age. These tools may be evidence of a prehistoric hunting camp. Or it may have been an early manifestation of war. By the Iron Age, local tribes had established a fort at Chillington, on nearby Ross Hill, which overlooks the present castle&rsquos grounds. Perhaps this was the original ‘homestead of Ceofel&rsquo that gives Chillingham its name.

By the 1200s, the conflict was increasing along the borderlands between England and Scotland. Monks had built a house on the land below Ross Hill. This monastery was converted into a fortified manor house with just one tower and a curtain wall. The monarchy placed the new castle in the hands of the Grey family in 1246. The Greys were descendants of the Croys, kin of William the Conqueror. Tasked with holding the border around Chillingham, it was they who turned the manor into a fortress, constructing its dungeons, torture chamber and battlements.

In 1297, the First Scottish War of Independence broke out. That same year, the forces of William Wallace raided Chillington, burning local women and children alive in a church. However, in 1298, Edward I, &ldquothe Hammer of the Scots&rdquo made Chillington his base for the campaign against Scotland. Chillington&rsquos dungeon began to fill with enemy prisoners- Scottish women and children, as well as soldiers and spies. Legend says that King Edward personally appointed the man who was to deal with them: John Sage.

The Rack at Chillington Castle. Google Images.

Sage was supposedly a soldier who had risen through the ranks to become a lieutenant in Edward&rsquos army. When a leg injury forced him to retire from combat, he begged the King to find him a role. So, Edward, had him appointed torturer at Chillington castle. Sage was a sadist and hated the Scots. Over the three years of war, he reputedly tortured some 50 prisoners a week. When the war ended, Sage burnt the remaining adult prisoners alive in the grounds of the castle while their children watched from what is known as the Edward Room or Killing Room. Sage later hacked these children to death with an ax still displayed in the castle.

In all, 7500 Scottish prisoners reputedly died at Chillington their bodies dumped into its lake. John Sage also met his end at Chillington. One evening, Sage killed his lover Elizabeth Charlton, strangling her during a sex game on the rack in Chillington&rsquos torture chamber. Unfortunately for Sage, Elizabeth&rsquos father was a leader of the powerful border reivers, outlaw gangs who plagued the borderlands but were vital to the fight against the Scots. To avoid losing the Reivers to the enemy, Edward I handed Sage over to justice. He was sentenced to hang at Chillington but was torn apart while he still lived. Others would soon join Sage&rsquos ghost and those of his victims.

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