Information

Moray SS-300 - History


Moray
(SS-300: dp. 1,526 (surt.), 2,424 (subm.); 1. 311'8"; b. 27'3", dr, 15'3" (mean), s. 20.25 k. (surf.), 8.75 k. (subm.); cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 2 .50 cal. mg., 1 40mm., 10 21" tt.; cl. Balao)

Moray (SS~300) was laid down 21 April 1943 at Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; launched 14 May 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Styles Bridges, wite of the New Hampshire Senator; and commissioned 26 January 1945, Comdr. Frank L. Barrows in command.

She departed Philadelphia 31 January 1945, arriving New London, Conn., 1 February. After shakedown training there and off Newport, R.I., Moray left New London with Carp (SS-338) and Gillette (DD-681) 14 April tor Balboa, Panama, C.Z., arriving 25 April. Underway 5 May, Moray arrived Pearl Harbor 21 May tor final training, after which she sailed for the Marianas 7 June, arriving Saipan 20 June.

The submarine cleared Saipan 27 June for her first war patrol as the senior unit of a coordinated attack group including Sea Poacher (SS-406), Angler (SS-240), Cero (SS-225), Lapon (SS-260), and Carp (SS-338). Comdr. Barrows in Moray assigned stations when the group reached its patrol area off Tokyo 1 July. The first phase of this patrol centered on lifeguard duty. From 7 to 9 July Iforav~s special mission was service as picketboat southeast of Honshu in preparation for 3d 11e'?t bombardment. Then she continued lifeguard operations.

By June 1945, brilliantly successful American submarine operations had made enemy targets almost nonexistent, and lifeguard duty became a vital mission for American submarines. However, Moray did get a chance at some action, when she and Kingfish ( SS-234) attacked a convoy off Kinkazan, Honshu, 10 July. Allowing Kingfish to attack first, Moray then moved in to fire six torpedoes, then pulled out to rearm and permit Kingfish a second stab. A Sew moments later one of Moray' torpedoes hit a whaler.

No other shipping was sighted, on 16 July the patrol was shifted to the Kurile Islands. Moray completed her patrol at Midway 6 August. On 1 September the submarine sailedf~or the west coast, arriving San Francisco, Calif., 11 September. She then went into deactivation overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard. She decommissioned 12 April 1946 and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet in January 1947. She was redesignated AGSS-300 on 1 December 1962 and was struck from the Navy list 1 April 1967 for sinking as a target.

Moray received one battle star tor World War II service.


USS Moray SS-300 (1945-1967)

Request a FREE packet and get the best information and resources on mesothelioma delivered to you overnight.

All Content is copyright 2021 | About Us

Attorney Advertising. This website is sponsored by Seeger Weiss LLP with offices in New York, New Jersey and Philadelphia. The principal address and telephone number of the firm are 55 Challenger Road, Ridgefield Park, New Jersey, (973) 639-9100. The information on this website is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to provide specific legal or medical advice. Do not stop taking a prescribed medication without first consulting with your doctor. Discontinuing a prescribed medication without your doctor’s advice can result in injury or death. Prior results of Seeger Weiss LLP or its attorneys do not guarantee or predict a similar outcome with respect to any future matter. If you are a legal copyright holder and believe a page on this site falls outside the boundaries of "Fair Use" and infringes on your client’s copyright, we can be contacted regarding copyright matters at [email protected]


USS Moray (SS-300)

USS Moray (SS-300), a Balao-class submarine, was a ship of the United States Navy named for the moray, a family of large eels found in crevices of coral reefs in tropical and subtropical oceans.

Moray (SS-300) was laid down 21 April 1943 at Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia launched 14 May 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Styles Bridges, wife of the New Hampshire Senator and commissioned 26 January 1945, Comdr. Frank L. Barrows in command.

She departed Philadelphia 31 January 1945, arriving New London, Connecticut, 1 February. After shakedown training there and off Newport, Rhode Island, Moray left New London with Carp (SS-338) and Gillette (DE-681) 14 April for Balboa, Panama, C.Z., arriving 25 April. Underway 5 May, Moray arrived Pearl Harbor 21 May for final training, after which she sailed for the Marianas 7 June, arriving Saipan 20 June.

The submarine cleared Saipan 27 June for her first war patrol as the senior unit of a coordinated attack group including Sea Poacher (SS-406) , Angler (SS-240) , Cero (SS-225) , Lapon (SS-260) , and Carp (SS-338) . Comdr. Barrows in Moray assigned stations when the group reached its patrol area off Tokyo 1 July. The first phase of this patrol centered on lifeguard duty. From 7 July to 9 July Moray's special mission was service as picketboat southeast of Honshū in preparation for 3rd Fleet bombardment. Then she continued lifeguard operations.

By June 1945, successful American submarine operations had made enemy targets almost nonexistent, and lifeguard duty became a vital mission for American submarines. However, Moray did get a chance at some action, when she and Kingfish (SS-234) attacked a convoy off Kinkazan, Honshū, 10 July. Allowing Kingfish to attack first, Moray then moved in to fire six torpedoes, then pulled out to rearm and permit Kingfish a second stab. A few moments later one of Moray's torpedoes hit a whaler "Fumi Maru No.6" <361 GRT>. [8] No other shipping was sighted on 16 July the patrol was shifted to the Kurile Islands. Moray completed her patrol at Midway 6 August.

On 1 September the submarine sailed for the West Coast, arriving San Francisco, California, 11 September. She then went into deactivation overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard. She decommissioned 12 April 1946 and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet in January 1947. She was redesignated an Auxiliary Research Submarine AGSS-300 on 1 December 1962. Moray was struck from the Navy List 1 April 1967 and sunk as a torpedo target, 18 June 1970, off San Clemente, California.


Note: Visits to the Heritage service are currently by appointment only. Please contact us at [email protected] or 01343 562639 to arrange a booking.

  • Monday         㺊am - 1pm
  • Tuesday         قpm - 6pm
  • Wednesday    㺊am - 1pm
  • Thursday         Closed
  • Friday             Closed
  • Saturday         Closed

List of Major League Baseball career batting average leaders

In baseball, the batting average (BA) is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is usually reported to three decimal places and pronounced as if it were multiplied by 1,000: a player with a batting average of .300 is "batting three-hundred." A point (or percentage point) is understood to be .001. If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken to more than three decimal places.

Outfielder Ty Cobb, whose career ended in 1928, has the highest batting average in Major League Baseball (MLB) history. [1] He batted .366 over 24 seasons, mostly with the Detroit Tigers. In addition, he won a record 11 batting titles for leading the American League in BA over the course of an entire season. He batted over .360 in 11 consecutive seasons from 1909 to 1919. [2] Oscar Charleston is second all-time with a career batting average of .364. [3] He had the highest career batting average in the history of the combined Negro leagues from 1920 to 1948. [4] Rogers Hornsby has the third highest BA of all-time, at .358. [1] He won seven batting titles in the National League (NL) and has the highest NL average in a single season since 1900, when he batted .424 in 1924. He batted over .370 in six consecutive seasons. [5]

Shoeless Joe Jackson is the only other player to finish his career with a batting average over .350. [1] He batted .356 over 13 seasons before he was permanently suspended from organized baseball in 1921 for his role in the Black Sox Scandal. [6] Lefty O'Doul first came to the major leagues as a pitcher, but after developing a sore arm, he converted to an outfielder and won two batting titles. [7] The fifth player on the list, and the last with at least a .345 BA, is Ed Delahanty. Delahanty's career was cut short when he fell into the Niagara Falls and died during the 1903 season. [8]

The last player to bat .400 in a season, Ted Williams, [9] ranks tied for 10th on the all-time career BA list. Babe Ruth hit for a career .342 average and is 13th on the list. A player must have a minimum of 3,000 plate appearances to qualify for the list. [1]


U. S. S. MORAY ( SS300 )
SUBMARINE MAINTENANCE ACT.
CRAMP SHIPBUILDING COMPANY
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA

Mrs. Phyllis K. Longley
Willow Grove
Newfield, New Jersey

. As prospective Commanding Officer
of the U. S. S. Moray, and in behalf of the Officer's[sic]
and crew ordered to the Moray, I wish to take this
opportunity to thank you for giving to us the ship's
battle design.

. The design has been whole-heartedly
accepted by all hands. Thanks to your patience and
efforts, all the members of the[sic] now have a beautifully
painted copy of this drawing.

. We intend that on carrying this to
sea, we will uphold the fighting characteristics of
the fish for which the ship is named, and which are
so vividly and realistically set out in your drawing.

. Sincerely yours,
. ( signed )
. F. L. BARROWS,
. Comdr., USN.

Dad spoke often and well of the Moray.
This site is dedicated to him and to the crew.


The province of Moray's importance as part of the kingdom of Scotland was demonstrated during the years of major warfare between 1296 and 1340. The province was relatively untouched by direct fighting and Royal-led English armies penetrated Moray on only three occasions in 1296, 1303 and 1335, and significant English occupation occurred only in 1296–97. This security meant that it was a vital refuge and recruitment ground for the Scottish guardians between 1297 and 1303, and provided Robert I of Scotland with a base and allies during his northern campaign against the Comyns and their allies in 1307–08. The province was forced to submit to Edward I of England in 1303 and Robert I of Scotland therefore clearly recognized the significance of Moray for the security of his realm. In 1312 Robert I re-established the Earldom of Moray for his nephew, Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray. The new earldom included all of the old province and the crown lands of the Laich or coastal area of Moray. [3]

Thomas's son John Randolph was killed in 1346, leaving no heir and the other noble families including the Comyns, Strathbogies and Morays had all disappeared from or left the province by between 1300 and 1350. With the absence of noble leaders, power fell to lesser figures who functioned in kin-based groups such as the Clan Donnachaidh of Atholl and the Chattan Confederation which centred on Badenoch. This drew in lords and men from outside of the province, from further south such as the Dunbars and Stewarts who staked their claims. In 1372, the Earldom of Moray was divided between them with John Dunbar receiving the coastal districts and Alexander Stewart, favourite son of Robert II of Scotland being made lord of Badenoch in the uplands. [3]

The division of Moray led to local conflict which was exacerbated by the activities of local kindreds and the eastward spread of the Gaelic superpower, the Lord of the Isles. The activities of the islesmen and kindreds in the service of Alexander Stewart made Moray the area of greatest conflict between the revived power of Gaelic Scotland and the structured society under the crown established during the previous centuries. Churchmen and burgesses made repeated complaints about the attacks of raiding caterans, the most notable being the burning of Elgin Cathedral by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, also known as the Wolf of Badenoch, in a dispute with the Bishop of Moray. [3]

Scotland's rulers were slow to react to the problems in the earldom of Moray. Their response was largely indirect and the governor, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, campaigned in the region in 1405 and 1411. James I of Scotland did the same in 1428 and 1429. They preferred to rely on a Lieutenant, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, the son of the Wolf of Badenoch. When the Earl of Mar died in 1435, a power vacuum allowed the Lords of the Isles to dominate Moray from the 1430s to the 1450s. The crown's earldom was restricted to the coastal areas of Moray and was held by lords whose resources lay elsewhere. The last of these once-loyal lords were the Clan Douglas, Earls of Douglas who were forfeited in 1455, after the Battle of Arkinholm against the king and a new power emerged in the province. The Clan Gordon, Earls of Huntly secured Badenoch in 1452 and occupied Moray three years later. The crown refused to allow the Gordons the provincial dominance of the Randolphs, but they remained chief lords of the area from the 15th century onwards, but under the possession of the crown royal line. [3]

The earldom eventually descended to Elizabeth Stewart, 7th Countess of Moray, whose husband was also recognised as earl. However, when her husband, James, was killed in battle against the Sovereign in 1455, his title was attainted.

The next grant was made to James Stewart, the son of King James IV. He, however, died without children, and the title became extinct. The title was next given to George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly. Gordon fell out of royal favour, and in 1462, he was killed and his title forfeited. [2]

The most recent creation was in favour of another James Stewart, the illegitimate son of King James V. Other Scottish titles associated with this creation are: Lord Abernethy and Strathearn (created 1562), Lord Doune (1581) and Lord St Colme (1611). Furthermore, Lord Moray holds the title Baron Stuart (1796), of Castle Stuart in the County of Inverness since it is in the Peerage of Great Britain, it entitled the Earls of Moray to sit in the House of Lords until the passage of the Peerage Act 1963.

Perhaps the most well-known Earl of Moray was James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray, the husband of Elizabeth Stewart, 2nd Countess of Moray, who held the earldom jure uxoris (by right of his wife), as he was the subject of a famous ballad, "The Bonny Earl O'Moray". He was also a direct male-line descendant of King Robert II.

The family seats are Doune Lodge, near Doune, Stirling and Darnaway Castle, near Forres, Moray.


Moray SS-300 - History


A Note on Copyright

  • Schools, libraries, and museums are free to make and keep copies for in-house educational use or nonpermanent loan/circulation . in gratitude for the fine education and research assistance I have always received from such institutions.
  • An individual is free to make one personal copy of Showdown Battle: Marianas and Philippine Sea Jun44 for his/her own personal use.
  • All other rights -- including publishing rights -- are reserved to me.

Showdown Battle: Marianas and Philippine Sea Jun44 is dedicated to .
A. . our U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine service people who served and fought so hard, bravely, and intelligently - especially Bob Coatney USAAF CBI, Homer Coatney USN CBs, Bill Heerde U.S. Marines, and Jack Burgett USN USS Moray SS-300,
B. . and my children Rebecca, Robert, Rohan, and Johanna in the hope they and all our children never have to suffer and die in another world war.

The more we learn about the Second World War, the better our chances that it will be the LAST world war. (LRC)

War should be confined to - imprisoned in - history books and games.

    Use WordPad. Rvsd 16Apr19 Rvsd 16Apr19 Print this off onto an 11x17/A3 size sheet and cut into indicated pieces. Rvsd Print this off onto an 8.5x11/A4 size sheet. Print this off onto an 8.5x11/A4 size sheet of cardstock/coverstock paper for standup markers or normal paper to mount on matteboard for flat markers. Rvsd . Print this off onto an A4/8.5x11 sheet. Mount on the back of matte board: blue for the backing of U.S. units and red for the backing of the Japanese units. Rvsd 11Nov18 Too small even at 11x17/A3 size for comfortable play, actually. Upgraded 13Apr19. Upgraded 13Apr19. Upgraded 13Apr19.

More comments by myself and others about the game can be read on Talk Consimworld Com and BoardGameGeek.


USS Moray (SS-300)

USS Moray (SS-300), a Balao-class submarine, was a ship of the United States Navy named for the moray, a family of large eels found in crevices of coral reefs in tropical and subtropical oceans.

Moray (SS-300) was laid down 21 April 1943 at Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania launched 14 May 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Styles Bridges, wife of the New Hampshire Senator and commissioned 26 January 1945, Comdr. Frank L. Barrows in command.

She departed Philadelphia 31 January 1945, arriving New London, Connecticut, 1 February. After shakedown training there and off Newport, Rhode Island, Moray left New London with Carp (SS-338) and Gillette (DE-681) 14 April for Balboa, Panama, C.Z., arriving 25 April. Underway 5 May, Moray arrived Pearl Harbor 21 May for final training, after which she sailed for the Marianas 7 June, arriving Saipan 20 June.

The submarine cleared Saipan 27 June for her first war patrol as the senior unit of a coordinated attack group including Sea Poacher (SS-406), Angler (SS-240), Cero (SS-225), Lapon (SS-260), and Carp (SS-338). Comdr. Barrows in Moray assigned stations when the group reached its patrol area off Tokyo 1 July. The first phase of this patrol centered on lifeguard duty. From 7 July to 9 July Moray's special mission was service as picketboat southeast of Honshū in preparation for 3rd Fleet bombardment. Then she continued lifeguard operations.

By June 1945, successful American submarine operations had made enemy targets almost nonexistent, and lifeguard duty became a vital mission for American submarines. However, Moray did get a chance at some action, when she and Kingfish (SS-234) attacked a convoy off Kinkazan, Honshū, 10 July. Allowing Kingfish to attack first, Moray then moved in to fire six torpedoes, then pulled out to rearm and permit Kingfish a second stab. A few moments later one of Moray's torpedoes hit a whaler. No other shipping was sighted on 16 July the patrol was shifted to the Kurile Islands. Moray completed her patrol at Midway 6 August.

On 1 September the submarine sailed for the West Coast, arriving San Francisco, California, 11 September. She then went into deactivation overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard. She decommissioned 12 April 1946 and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet in January 1947. She was redesignated an Auxiliary Research Submarine AGSS-300 on 1 December 1962. Moray was struck from the Navy List 1 April 1967 and sunk as a torpedo target, 18 June 1970, off San Clemente, California.


Moray SS-300 - History

The first submarine commissioned into the U.S. Navy was the USS Holland in 1900. Soon six more Holland submarines were ordered, consituting the A-class.

Plunger was the first unit of the A-class, commissioned in 1903 as USS A-1 . On 22 August 1905, Plunger, accompanied by a tug, visited Oyster Bay New York and hosted a 3 hour visit by President Theodore Roosevelt. On 3 May 1909, Ensign Chester W. Nimitz, the future Fleet Admiral, took command of Plunger. That September, the submarine visited New York City to take part in the Hudson-Fulton celebrations.

In October, Plunger and two submarines of a newer class, Viper ( USS B-1) and Tarantula (USS B-3), accompanied by a gunboat as tender, were transferred to Charlestown to establish a submarine division there. Enroute, Viper had a mishap and made an unscheduled landing on Cape Henlopen .

By 1911, the Navy had acquired 20 Holland-type boats on the East Coast. As the Navy began investigating different design characteristics for its subs, the next class was built at other yards. Thrasher ( USS G-4) was built at Cramp’s shipyard in Philadelphia and commissioned in 1914.

Based on plans purchased from an Italian designer, and with different equipment requiring different operating procedures, Thrasher spent the next five months conducting trial runs and diving tests in the vicinity of Cape Henlopen .

Then, in 1915, Thrasher participated in a Naval Review for President Wilson and during the war served as a developmental submarine for new submarine detection equipment.

As WW I raged in Europe, the Germans conducted submarine warfare to isolate Great Britain from receiving supplies. But, in response to a warning from President Wilson, they placed restrictions on their campaign in an effort to keep the U.S. out of the war.

However, recognizing that the threat of submarine warfare off the U.S. coasts might serve as a deterrent to U.S. entry into the war, the Germans took the opportunity to demonstrate their long-range submarine capabilities. German commercial enterprises had undertaken the construction of cargo-carrying submarines to carry critical supplies to Germany , avoiding the Royal Navy blockade. Seven submarines were planned, the first was the Deutschland.

In 1916, Deutschland made the first-ever submarine trans-Atlantic crossing, arriving in Baltimore in early July. The sub made another trip to New London . On these voyages, each of over 8000 nautical miles, the submarine was only submerged for the undetected passage of the English Channel .

At the time of the Deutschland’s visit, the Navy took the opportunity to announce the completion of the newest and largest U.S. submarine, the USS M-1. The next Spring while on training, the M-1 operated in the Cape area.

After abortive peace overtures, on February 1, 1917 Germany again began unrestricted submarine warfare. And, after the first two American ships were sunk, President Wilson declared war. At the time, Germany had 111 U-boats. In the Atlantic, the U.S. had a total of 40 submarines plus 7 coastal N-class boats.

The first warnings of German submarines approaching the Cape and moving toward Fourth Naval District (4ND) waters, for which the Inshore Defense Forces based at Cape May and Lewes were responsible, came in mid-May 1918. The submarine was the Deutschland, now converted to a minelayer, U-151.

During May, the sub operated undetected by U.S. naval forces while attacking several coast-wise sail schooners unlikely to have radios. T hese attacks were carried out by the surfaced sub using its deck guns to fire a warning shot to stop the ship, then telling the crew to abandon ship and taking them prisoners. The sub's crewmen boarded the abandoned ship to place explosives to sink it. In that way there was little chance for the Navy to receive warning of the sub's location. At the end of May, the undetected U-151 laid a cluster of mines off Cape Henlopen and continued north to cut a trans-Atlantic cable off New York . Then, on 2 June, on what came to be called “Black Sunday”, the sub sank three more schooners and three steamships as well as damaging two other ships off the coast of New Jersey about 50 miles southeast of Barnegat light.

The last ship sunk was the SS Carolina, a 5000 ton passenger ship with 200 passengers and 100 crew. As the passengers and crew of that ship and the other ships took to the lifeboats, the prisoners aboard the sub were released to join them. Thus, some 400 people were adrift in boats off New Jersey.

On 3 June, the war came to the Cape . First, early in the day, a British ship carrying survivors from Carolina arrived at the Cape . Those survivors had been in two life boats that had been caught in a squall overnight. One of the boats had capsized, resulting in the loss of 13 persons.

Then, later in the day, the Herbert L. Pratt, a 7150 gross ton oil tanker, proceeding empty to Philadelphia for delivery to the Navy, hit one of the mines laid by U-151 when about three miles off Cape Henlopen near the Overfalls lightship. The explosion ripped a hole in her forward section which quickly submerged.

The Lewes pilot boat Philadelphia , soon arrived to evacuate crewmen. Some remained aboard and, with a salvage crew, righted the ship. A Navy tug towed it into the Naval Section Base at Lewes were it was patched and had power restored. The ship then proceeded to Philadelphia under its own power. Soon Pratt had been commissioned in the U.S. Navy, and was on its way to France with oil for ships based there.

In July and August, three other Deutschland-type subs operated in the Cape area. U-156 sunk one ship off northern New Jersey before moving north. U-140 sunk one ship further at sea before moving south.

Next U-117, nearing the middle of what had already been a very successful cruise, entered Cape area waters, sinking one tanker and then another off Barnegat Light and then laying mines in the area.

On the way south past the Cape the sub was attacked by a Navy plane and subchaser. After escaping to sink a small coastal schooner, U-117 laid more mines in the area of Fenwick Light. She then moved south to create more havoc.

As a response to the continued German submarine operations off the Cape , in August 1918, t he submarine tender USS Savannah (AS-8), flying the flag of Commander, Submarine Division 8, had arrived at the Delaware Breakwater. The intention was to rendezvous with eight O-class submarines that had been operating out of the Philadelphia Navy Yard and provide an advance base for expanded operations and training before moving overseas.

Soon, however, it was found that the ground swell coming into the Harbor of Refuge from seaward made that area unsuitable as a floating base. The division’s base was shifted to Cold Spring Inlet, Cape May . But, a unique ship of the squadron remained at the Lewes Naval Section Base. That was the USS Robert H. McCurdy (ID 3157). She was a 735 gross ton four-masted schooner intended to be a “decoy ship” mimicking the types of ships that had been attacked by U-151 and luring German subs into range of waiting U.S. subs.

When those submarines left the Cape in October for transfer overseas, they were replaced by several other O-class units that operated out of Cape May until 1919, before moving to Philadelphia.

On 18 September, a month after U-117 had left the area, the USS Minnesota (BB-22), an older battleship serving as a training ship, hit one of the mines laid by U-117 off of the Fenwick lightship. The ship was able to contain the damage and proceed to the Cape and Philadelphia under her own power.

But, even long after U-117 had departed, the effects of her visit remained. T wo merchant ships were sunk in October off Barnegat Inlet by the mines that U-117 had laid earlier. Then, just as the war was ending, on 9 November, USS Saetia (ID No. 2317) a Navy support cargo ship encountered another of U-117’s mines and sunk 10 miles southeast of Fenwick Island Shoal. All eighty-five hands survived to come ashore at Ocean city and Cape May .

Some of the mines laid by U-151 and U-117 were still being found in early 1919.

In the post-war years, at least eight L-class subs were based at Philadelphia and frequently passed the Cape to operate along the Atlantic coast experimenting with new torpedoes and undersea detection equipment.

On February 2 1921, four of those Philadelphia-based L-class subs had been operating off the coast. Upon approaching the Cape for their return to Philadelphia , the subs encountered the Lewes pilot boat Philadelphia , which had seen their lights and mistakenly assumed it was a ship needing a pilot. Upon approaching the group, Philadelphia rammed L-1 and damaged it enough so that it was in danger of sinking. Philadelphia towed the sub to the breakwater where it rested stern-down on a muddy bottom in shallow water. The crew stabilized the sub and it was towed to Philadelphia by the Navy tug, USS Kalmia (AT-23).

In the post-war era, the R-class was the principal fleet submarine and a newly-designed S-class was being built. One of the earlier units of this class, S-5, was to conduct Navy trials about 55 miles east-southeast of the Cape while enroute to Baltimore . On 1 September 1920, S-5 was to conduct a required four-hour, high-speed surface run, to be followed immediately by a crash dive and a one-hour, high-speed submerged trial.

When the order to dive was given, difficulties in regulating the valves caused the air intake valve to be left open momentarily too long. Water poured through the ventilation system X , flooding the torpedo room. // The water in the torpedo room made submarine bow heavy and, despite emergency surfacing procedures, the submarine continued downward, plowing bow-first into the muddy bottom in 180-190 feet of water.

After several hours of unsuccessful attempts to free the sub from the bottom, the Commanding Officer decided to use virtually all of the remaining pressurized air to empty water from the aft ballast tanks and make the stern more buoyant. The stern suddenly broke free of the bottom and, pivoting on the flooded and still-stuck bow, the submarine rotated vertically with the stern rapidly rising toward the surface until it was nearly 60 degrees from the horizontal.

By that time S-5 and her men had been on the bottom for nearly five hours. Several men had remained in the motor room which, being at the stern of the sub, had become the highest compartment. They reported hearing the sound of waves beating against the hull. Given S-5’s 231 foot length, the 180-190 depth of water where she was marooned, and the angle she made with the horizontal, about 20 feet of the boat’s stern was protruding above the surface.

The commander and several crew members moved further aft into the tiller room and, using a manual drill, bored a quarter inch hole through the three-quarter inch, high-strength steel that separated them from the outside world. That work confirmed that the stern was well out of the water. But, a fter 12 hours of hard work with hand tools in cramped spaces they had only succeeded in making a hole three inches in diameter. After another 12 hours, drilling teams had achieved a triangular hole six by eight inches. But most of the men were now either incapacitated or unconscious from lack of oxygen.

Then, when all seemed lost, a ship appeared nearby. Taking a ten-foot copper pipe and fastening a sailor’s tee-shirt to it, the commander thrust it out through the hole and waved for help. That was noticed by t he small coastal steamship SS Alanthus, which came alongside

Alanthus had few tools and no radio but a large passenger steamship, the SS General George W. Goethals, was also passing nearby and Alanthus was able to contact her by emergency flaghoist. Goethals radioed the Navy for assistance and her engineers created an 18 inch hole through which the crew could be brought out one by one.

About 36 hours after the casualty and just as a Navy tug and the battleship USS Ohio were arriving, the entire crew had been rescued.

The tug and Ohio rigged a towline and attempted free the sub, but as it filled with water it slowly sunk to the bottom, where it lies today.

As the S-class came into the Fleet, the R-class was phased out during the mid-1920s into the 1930s. Many of those subs from the Atlantic Fleet passed the Cape enroute to Philadelphia for decommissioning and preservation in the Reserve Fleet. Many were called back into commission for WW II.

Just like the R-class, O-class subs were being decommissioned in Philadelphia in the 1920s and 30s, ready to be recommissioned for future use.

In July 1930 one, O-12, was struck from the Naval Register and leased at a cost of one dollar per year for five years to be used in the Sir Hubert Wilkins Arctic Expedition. The sub underwent extensive structural modifications and the installation of special scientific equipment at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. During early March of 1931 builders trials, including diving, were conducted in the lower Delaware Bay.

The sub was christened Nautilus at a ceremony under the Brooklyn Bridge on March 24, 1931. While sailing to Bergen Norway to begin the expedition, there were numerous difficulties, including breaking down in mid-Atlantic and having to be towed to Ireland by the disarmed former battleship USS Wyoming, which was then on a Naval Academy training cruise. Nevertheless, upon finally reaching the Arctic, the expedition was a success, gathering oceanographic and meteorological data and conducting the first under-ice submergence. After the expedition, the sub was returned to the Navy, but being in no condition for another Atlantic crossing the Navy gave permission for it to be scuttled off Bergen .

As war was raging in Europe, U.S. naval preparations included the building of nine V-class submarines, modeled on the large long range German cruiser submarines of WWI.

Further, in 1940, the Navy allotted $22 million to reopen Cramp’s shipyard in Philadelphia for the construction of submarines of a new class of submarines based on the experience gained by building the V-class. The V-class sub, USS Cuttlefish (SS-171) was sent past the Cape to Philadelphia as an engineering model.


Watch the video: 300 2006 - This Is Sparta! Scene 15. Movieclips (January 2022).